Torts Flashcards Preview

FL Bar Topics > Torts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Torts Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...


1) Intent
2) An act
3) That is harmful/offensive
4) Causation



1) An act
2) Intent to put the P in apprehension
3) of an imminent harmful/offensive contact
4) That actually causes such apprehension


Trespass to Land

1) Intent
2) Possession of the property by the P
3) Physical invasion of the property by the D


Trespass to Chattels

1) Intent
2) An act by the D that interferes with P's right to possession of the chattel (but that is not so serious as to require D to pay the full value)
3) Causation
4) Damages



1) Intent
2) An act by the D that interferes with P's right to possession of the chattel that is serious enough to warrant that the D pay the full value
3) Causation


False Imprisonment

1) Intent
2) An act
3) Confinement to a bounded area
4) Causation


Defense to False Imprisonment

Shopkeeper's privilege: (applies to LEO, farmers, merchants, transit agencies)
1) Has probable cause to believe that a theft has been committed
2) The property may be recovered by taking the offender into custody
3) Detention must be made in a reasonable manner for a reasonable amount of time



1) An act
2) Extreme/Outrageous conduct
3) Intent to cause P emotional distress
4) Causation
5) Damages



1) An act
2) Extreme/outrageous conduct
3) Negligence (instead of intent)
4) Causation
5) Damages


NIED - 3rd Person/Bystander

1) Anxiety about the safety of another
2) Close relationship with the injured party
3) Occurs w/in sensory perception as it was happening
4) Causation
5) Damages (physical impairment following the psychic trauma


NIED - Zone of Danger/Near Miss

D's act does not physically harm the P, but it does place P in the zone of danger so that P fears for his physical safety and P suffers physical symptoms as a result


Defenses to Intentional Torts

1) Consent: Express or Implied (through custom or by law)
2) Self Defense/Defense of Others: Can use force (including deadly force) to defend self/others - No duty to retreat
3) Defense of Property: Can use non-deadly force - No duty to retreat
4) Private Necessity: Can interfere with P's property to avoid imminent harm; D must pay for any damages caused to P's property
5) Privilege: An excuse for committing a tort that states you had the right to act that way (i.e. pushing someone's hand away as they are about to hit you)



1) D published a false statement of fact
2) About the P
3) To a third party
4) And the falsity of the statement caused injury to the P
5) Culpability: Private individuals = negligence; Public figures = malice



An oral defamatory statement



A written defamatory statement


Defamation per se

Naturally harmful statements such as:
1) Accusing P of committing a crime
2) Accusing P of having an infectious disease/mental illness
3) Statement subjects P to hate/distrust
4) Statement injures P's business or profession


Defenses to defamation

1) Truth
2) Opinion
3) Privilege


Invasion of Right to Privacy

Civil recognition of a Constitutional right
1) Intrusion of P's affairs or seclusion
2) Appropriation of identity/likeness
3) Public disclosure of private facts



1) Duty
2) Breach
3) Causation
4) Damages


Duty (Negligence)

Duty: A D has a duty to all foreseeable P's in the zone of danger

Standard of Care:
General: Generally, there is a duty to act as a reasonably prudent person under the circumstances
Medical Professionals: Held to the same level of care, skill, and treatment as a reasonable healthcare provider in the same community under the circumstances
Minors: Must act as a reasonably prudent child with the same education, intelligence, and experiences under the circumstances.... Exception: Minors doing adult activities


Negligence - Duty (Premises Liability)

Invited Licensee: Duty to inspect and warn or make safe

Unknown Trespasser: Duty to refrain from intentional misconduct that injures the trespasser but no duty to warn

Known Trespasser: Duty to refrain from gross negligence and intentional misconduct that injures the trespasser and a duty to warn (w/in 24 hours)

Intoxicated Trespasser: No duty


Breach (Negligence)

D's conduct falls below the duty of care owed to the P


Causation (Negligence)

The conduct was the cause of the P's injury. Requires actual and proximate cause.

Actual Cause: "but for" the D's acts, the injury would not have occurred"

Proximate Cause: Foreseeability: The injury is a foreseeable result of the act

Look out for intervening and superseding cause


Superseding Cause (Negligence)

An event that occurs after D's initial act that substantially causes the accident. D is not liable since the initial act is not the proximate cause of P's injuries.


Intervening Cause (Negligence)

An event that occurs after D's initial act that combines with D's act to cause injury to the P. D is liable for harm caused to the P regardless of whether he could foresee the extent/severity of the harm.


Negligence Per Se

An act that is negligent because it violates a statute.

1) A conclusive presumption of duty; and
2) Breach of that duty

In Florida, the statute must impose an affirmative duty to act and impose penalties for a failure to do so


Good Samaritan

In Florida, there is no duty to rescue, but if you do you can still be liable for negligence.

Medical Personnel: Good samaritan does not shield medical personnel if they act negligently or recklessly. Reckless if knew or should have known that actions created an unreasonable risk AND that risk was substantially greater than the risk if he acted negligently.


Medical Malpractice

Negligence analysis + the standard of care is the level of care, skill, and treatment that is acceptable and appropriate for a reasonably prudent health care provider in like circumstances.

If patient is unconscious -- can infer negligence under res ipsa loquiter


Res Ipsa Loquiter

1) The accident that caused the injury isn't the type of accident that occurs without negligence
2) The accident was attributable to the D (exclusive control)
3) P was not at fault


Negligence Defenses

1) Pure comparative negligence: In Florida, a party is only responsible for the percentage they were at fault
Exception: If legally drunk & >50% at fault

2) Sovereign Immunity: The gov't cannot be held liable for its planning decisions, but can be held liable for its operation decisions.