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CfE Advanced Higher Chemistry Unit 1 > Transition Metals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transition Metals Deck (18)
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1

Why are transition metals known as d block elements?

The d block transition metals are metals with an incomplete d subshell in at least one of their ions.

2

Explain why Copper and Chromium appear not to follow the aufbau principle (orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy).

Chromium [Ar] 3d5 4s1

Copper [Ar] 3d10 4s1

Half-filled or fully filled d orbitals have a special stability. However, whenever transition metals form ions electrons are lost first from the outermost subshell the 4s.

 

3

What is the electron configuration of Co2+ ?

[Ar] 3d7

4

Explain why Scandium and Zinc are often considered not to be transition metals.

Scandium only forms 3+ ions and Zinc only forms 2+ ions. Neither of these result in an incomplete d subshell, therefore do not fit the definition of a transition metal.

5

Consider the electronic configurations of the Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in terms of orbital box notation. Explain why Fe(III) compounds are more stable than Fe(II) compounds.

Fe3+ ions would have a half-filled d subshell which is stable.

6

 What are the oxidation states of sulphur in H2S, S8 (elementary sulphur), SO2, SO3, and H2SO4 

H2S, S8 (elementary sulphur), SO2, SO3, and H2SO4 

-2, 0, +4, +6 and +6.

7

Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxidation number

OXIDATION can be defined as an increase in oxidation number, while REDUCTION can be defined as a decrease in oxidation number.

8

What is a transition metal complexes?

 

A complex consists of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands

9

What is a ligand?

Ligands are electron donors which may be negative ions or molecules with non-bonding pairs of electrons.

10

What is meant by a dative/coordinate bond?

a covalent bond (a shared pair of electrons) in which both electrons come from the same atom.

11

How many pairs of electrons do each of the following types of ligands donate?

i) monodentate

ii) bidentate

iii) polydentate

 

i) one

ii) two

iii) more than one

12

 one nickel(II) ion will form six bonds with one 'molecule' of EDTA

i) What type of ligand is EDTA

ii) what is the coordination number of nickel?

i) polydentate or hexadentate

ii) 6

13

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2

i) Hexaaquacobalt(II) chloride

ii) 6

iii) +2

 

14

 

Na[CrF4]

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

i) Sodium tetrafluorochromate(III)

ii) 4

iii) +3

We need 1 Nato balance charge on complex.

If we have 4 Fthen this means that the chromate 

 

15

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2

i) Hexaaquacobalt(II) chloride

ii) 6

iii) +2

 

16

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2

i) Hexaaquacobalt(II) chloride

ii) 6

iii) +2

 

17

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2

i) Hexaaquacobalt(II) chloride

ii) 6

iii) +2

 

18

i) Name this complex

ii) What its coordiation number of the transition metal ion

iii) What is the oxidation state of the metal ion

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2

i) Hexaaquacobalt(II) chloride

ii) 6

iii) +2