Transport In Animals Flashcards Preview

Biology Stonehouse Y12 > Transport In Animals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transport In Animals Deck (57):
1

What is an open circulatory system?

Blood is not always in vessels

2

What is the open body cavity called

Haemocoel- blood under low pressure and exchange takes place

3

What is a closed circulatory system?

Blood in blood vessels- not in direct contact with cells

4

What is a single closed circulatory system

Blood flows through heart and pumped to travel all around body before returning- passes through 2 sets of capillaries

5

What do sort of system does a fish have?

Counter current system
Body weight supported by water and they don’t maintain their body temp, lowering metabolic demands

6

What is a double circulatory system?

Two separate circulations
Blood pumped from heart to lungs and back
Then flows through heart and pumped to body and returns

7

Describe the system of a single celled organism

Large SA:V
Direct diffusion
No blood

8

Describe the system of an insect

Blood flows freely
Blood bathed organs and muscles
Blood carries amino acids, sugars ions
Blood is greenish yellow
Oxygen travels through spiracles

9

Describe system of a fish

Blood in vessels
Blood pumps once around body from heart to gills
Blood carries oxygen carbon dioxide
Red due to haemoglobin
Oxygen from hills to blood

10

Describe system of human

Blood in vessels
Double circulatory system
Blood carries oxygen carbon dioxide
Blood red die to haemoglobin
Oxygen from lungs to blood

11

What do arteries do

Carry oxygenated blood away from heart
Blood under higher pressure than veins

12

What does the pulmonary artery do?

Carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs

13

Structure of arteries

Elastic fibres
Smooth muscle
Collagen
Small lumen

14

What do elastic fibres do

Withstand force and stretch
RECOIL

15

What are arterioles

Link arteries and capillaries
Have smooth muscles and less elastin than arteries

16

What are capillaries

Link arterioles with venules
One cell thick
Site of exchange

17

What are veins

Carry deoxygenated blood away from the body to heart
Pressure lower
Valves to stop backflow
Collagen and little elastic fibre
Wide lumen

18

Where does deoxygenated blood travel

Venules
Veins
Inferior vena cava (lower body)
Superior vena cava (upper body)

19

What are venules

Link capillaries and veins
Thin walls
Little smooth muscle

20

Artery vs vein structure

Lumen- narrower
Tunica intima- thicker
Tunica media- thicker
Tunica externa- thinner

21

Red blood cells name

Erythrocytes

22

White blood cells name

Leucocytes

23

Types of white blood cells

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes

24

Composition of blood

55% plasma
40% erythrocytes
3.5% leucocytes
1.5% platelets

25

Where do blood cells originate

Stem cells through haemopoiesis

26

Describe erythrocytes

Biconcave disc (large SA:V)
120 days life span
Made in bone marrow
No nucleus

27

Describe fluid formation

At the venule, inward osmotic pull exceeds outward hydrostatic pressure
Filtered water returns to capillary from tissue fluid by osmosis

28

Structure of mammalian heart

2 atria and 2 ventricles
Deoxygenated blood from vena cava into right atrium
Through atrioventricular valves into ventricles

29

What do tendinous cords do

Prevent valves from turning inside out

30

What keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate

Ventricular septum

31

Where does deoxygenated blood leave the heart

Right ventricle
Pulmonary artery
Lungs

32

Where does oxygenated blood leave the heart

Left ventricle
Aorta

33

Where are semilunar valves

Base of major arteries
Prevent backflow

34

Why is the left ventricle thicker than the right

Left pumps to body
Right pumps to lungs

35

Cardiac cycle

Diastole
Atrial systole
Ventricular systole

36

Late diastole

A & V relaxed
AV valves open and SL valves closed
PASSIVE FILLING 70% capacity
Pressure causes AV to drift close
Atria contract increasing pressure
ACTIVE FILLING
AV valves shut
a relax then enter V systole
Pressure in A and PA, SL valves open

37

Ventricular systole

Isometric ventricular contraction- vol of blood constant but pressure rises
When pressure exceeds that in the Aorta and PA, SL valves open and blood ejected

38

Describe the heart

Myogenic

39

Conduction through the heart

Wave of depolarisation (electrical impulses from SA node)
Impulses spread across atria- they contract
Impulses reach border between A and V blocked by non-conducting tissue
Impulses pass through AV node to reach V, creating AV delay which allows atria to complete contraction before V contracts

40

Too fast heartbeat

Tachycardia

41

Too spaced out

Bradycardia

42

Extra beat in heartbeat

Ectopic best

43

Waves in an ECG

P
Q
R
S
T

44

Describe the effect of the wave of excitation on the heart

Atria contract and initiate heartbeat
Electrical signals picked up by AVN and stimulates bundles of HIS and excitation travels to apex where signals spread out and ventricles contract

45

What does haemoglobin do

Associates oxygen when O2 concentrations high and dissociates the gas when O2 contractions low
O2 PARTIAL PRESSURE

46

What is haemoglobin

Conjugated protein that displays quaternary structure

47

What influences the dissociation curve for haemoglobin

Temperature
pH
CO2 concentration

Curve goes right

48

Myoglobin vs haemoglobin

Higher affinity for O2

49

3 ways of transportation of CO2

5% carried in plasma as carbonic acid H2CO3 which reacts with water to form carbonic anhydrase
10% haemoglobin amino acids combine with CO2 to form carbaminohaemoglobin
85% converted into hydrogen carbonate ions HCO3-

50

How many molecules of oxygen does haemoglobin combine with?

4 molecules

51

Cooperativity

When the first haem group combines with oxygen, the affinity of the second game group for oxygen increases and so on

52

What is it called when there is inward diffusion of Cl- ions

Chloride shift- maintains neutrality

53

What is it called when the dissociation is increased by the presence of CO2

Bohr Shift

54

When H+ ions combine with haemoglobin what is formed

Haemoglobinic acid

55

Differences between tissue fluid & blood

Tissue Fluid- no red blood cells, low pressure, no platelets
Blood- red blood cells, higher pressure, platelets

56

in the human heart, what causes the 'lub' sound

closing of the atrioventricular valves

57

describe the mechanism behind water movement between plasma and tissue at the venule end of a capillary

the oncotic pressure is greater than the hydrostatic pressure so water moves into the capillary