Flashcards in Transport in animals Deck (27)
What does it mean for animals increasing in size?
Their diffusion pathway is larger
Which animals have a better SA:V ratio?
Large animals have a smaller SA:V ratio (similar in numbers)
Why do larger animals need more O2 the small animals?
More active, more cells in body, more waste
What are the three blood vessels?
Arteries, veins, capillaries
What do arteries do?
Carry blood at high pressure away from heart to entire body
What are arteries made up of?
Lumen, Tunica intima (made of endothelium, smooth inside), tunica media (elastic), tunica external (tough collagen)
What do capillaries do?
Exchange materials with cells
Structure of capillaries?
Small lumen (slow down blood flow), one cell thick wall (ideal for diffusion)
What are venules?
Small veins, made of endothelium
What do veins do?
Returns blood to the heart at low pressure
Structure of veins?
Large lumen and valves do avoid back flow, thin wall
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
What are platelets?
Cell fragments (involved in clotting)
What is plasma?
Where dissolved substances are transported
What is tissue fluid?
Formed from plasma and contains many solutes and WBC
What is mass flow?
Directed movement of materials, some type of force causing it
What is the main blood vessel in insects?
The dorsal vessel
What is the blood inside insects called?
What is the body cavity of insects called?
What name is given to an insects heart?
What are the Ostia?
One way valves in the heart to let blood back in
What are the four main parts of the heart and where are they?
Ventricles at the bottom, atria at the top, left ventricle/atrium on the right hand side and right ventricle/atrium on the left hand side
What is the septum?
The bottom tissues of the heart, also goes separates the two sides
Where are the valve tendons located?
In the top of the ventricles
Which half of the heart carries oxygenated blood?