Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide Flashcards Preview

OCR A level biology > Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide Deck (41):
1

How many oxygen molecules is one haem group capable of binding to?

One Oxygen molecule

2

How many haem groups does one haemoglobin molecule contain?

4

3

Give the equation for haemoglobin binding to Oxygen

Hb + 4O2 ⇌ HbO8

4

What is formed when haemoglobin binds to oxygen?

Oxyhaemoglobin

5

How does Oxygen get from the alveoli into the blood?

Diffuses from alveoli into blood capillaries down a concentration gradient

6

What occurs to the Hb once the first molecule of O2 has been taken up by it?

The Hb changes shape

7

Why does Hb change shape once the first molecule of O2 has been taken up?

-enables Hb to take up the 2nd O2 more quickly
-the 3rd O2 quicker still
-4th O2 even more quickly
-allows a concentration gradient to be maintained as no free oxygen is dissolved into the blood

8

What is positive cooperactivity?

-Hb which changes shape once 1st molecule of O2 is taken up
-enables 2nd, 3rd, 4th O2 molecules to be taken up more quickly

9

Where is oxyhaemoglobin transported to?

Respiring tissues

10

When oxyhaemoglobin is transported to respiring tissues what happens?

It releases O2 molecules

11

What is the determining factor for whether O2 is picked up or released?

The partial pressure of O2 (pO2)

12

What is an oxygen dissociation curve?

a way of showing how the binding of O2 varies at different pO2

13

Is the pO2 greater in the lungs than in the capillaries of respiring issues?

Yes

14

What is the shape of the oxygen dissociation curve?

An 'S' shape

15

What does the 'S' shape of the oxygen dissociation curve mean for change in pO2?

For a relatively small change in pO2 there is a large change in the % of Hb saturated with O2

16

What is the x axis for an oxygen dissociation curve?

p(O2) (kPa)

17

What is the y axis for an oxygen dissociation curve?

% Hb saturated with O2

18

Why can the oxygen saturation of the blood never be 100%?

Some Hb will be bound to CO2

19

What is the effect of a drop of oxygen levels on Hb?

Causes O2 to be released from Hb

20

Under what physiological conditions is Hb able to release even more O2?

-CO2 concentrations increase
-Temperature increases
-Blood pH increases

21

How is Hb able to release more O2 under certain conditions?

The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right

22

What is Bohr shift?

The movement of the oxygen dissociation curve to the right

23

Organisms that live in an environment of relatively low pO2 have Hb that differs to organisms which live in a normal environment how?

The Hb has a higher affinity for O2

24

What is the effect of Hb with a higher affinity for O2 on the oxygen dissociation curve?

Shifts the curve to the left

25

Give an example of an organism that has Hb with a higher affinity

A foetus

26

Where does a foetus obtain its Oxygen from?

Maternal Haemoglobin

27

What is an advantage of respiring cells producing large amounts of CO2?

-the oxygen curve is shifted to the right
-so more oxygen can be released from the haemoglobin

28

Why does foetal haemoglobin have a higher affinity for O2?

-a foetus obtains its O2 from maternal haemoglobin
-in the placenta maternal Hb releases the O2 which diffuses into the foetal bloodstream
-at the pO2 at which maternal Hb releases O2 which diffuses into the foetal bloodstream
-pO2 at which maternal Hb releases O2 the foetal Hb is able to pick up
-Foetal Hb becomes 95% saturated

29

What % of CO2 is transported in blood plasma?

5%

30

What are the 3 ways transport of CO2 occurs?

-in blood plasma
-attaches to amine group of haemoglobin
-transported as hydrogen carbonate in red blood cells

31

How is CO2 transported in blood plasma?

-CO2 dissolves into blood plasma to form carbonic acid
-the acid dissolves to give Hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-) ions and protons

32

What is the function of plasma proteins in the blood in regards to CO2 transportation?

-plasma proteins buffer the protons
-and so protect the pH from decreasing and denaturing proteins in the blood

33

What is the equation for CO2 transport in blood plasma?

CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 ⇌ H+ + HCO3-

34

What % of CO2 is transported by attaching to the amine group of haemoglobin?

10

35

What % of CO2 is transported in red blood cells as hydrogen carbonate?

85

36

How is CO2 transported in red blood cells?

-CO2 diffuses into red blood cells
-Enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyses the reaction of CO2 and water to produce carbonic acid which dissociates into HCO3- ions and H+
-HCO3- diffuse into plasma
-H+ buffered by Hb to form Haemoglobic acid, triggering the release of 4 molecules of O2

37

What is chloride shift?

-due to HCO3- ions diffusing out of the cell down a concentration gradient charge becomes imbalanced
-to maintain electrical charge there is an inward diffusion of chloride ions

38

What happens to the processes of CO2 transportation when the lungs are reached?

All processes are reversed

39

Why is carbonic anhydrase used to catalyse the reaction of CO2 and water within red blood cells?

-so the reaction occurs quickly
-maintains the concentration gradient of CO2

40

What is the relative position of the foetal haemoglobin curve relative to the adult haemoglobin curve?

The foetal curve is to the left of the adult haemoglobin

41

Why is the foetal haemoglobin curve to the left of the adult haemoglobin curve?

-placenta has low pO2
-adult Hb will release O2
-foetal Hb is still able to take up some O2 in placenta
-foetal Hb has a higher affinity for O2 than adult Hb