Flashcards in Trauma station Deck (6)
What is shock?
Shock is defined as a state of cellular and tissue hypoxia due to reduced oxygen delivery and/or increased oxygen consumption or inadequate oxygen utilization.
Decreased perfusion pressure to vital organs such as liver, kidney, brain, heart, lungs
What are the 5 types of shock?
- Hypovolaemic shock is a reduction of intravascular volume by 15% or more, and is commonly caused by haemorrhage, burns, severe dehydration, and persistent and severe vomiting and diarrhoea;
- Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to sustain cardiac output, for example owing to myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy or cardiac arrest;
- Neurogenic shock is the result of an imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle caused by a range of conditions including head injury, spinal trauma and prolonged heat exposure;
- Septic shock is caused by toxins produced by an infectious agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae;
- Anaphylactic shock is a hypersensitivity reaction, which can be caused by a range of substances used to diagnose and treat disease, as well as foods.
What is SIRS?
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
• Body temp less than 36 or more than 38
• Tachypnoeic more than 20 breaths per minute
• HR - more than 90 bpm
Why should you be weary of opiates for pain relief?
Can cause respiratory depression
Give NSAIDs and paracetamol instead,
Can give oopioids but have naloxone ready to reverse the effects of resp depression.
What is the Massive transfusion protocol?
Order 4 units of RBCs and 2 units of FFP, and 1 unit of platelets,