Traumatic Brain Injury Flashcards Preview

Neurology Module > Traumatic Brain Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Traumatic Brain Injury Deck (90):
0

What is a concussion?

Sudden deceleration injury.
Coup-countrecoup injury.
CT or MRI are typically normal.

1

Concussion Prevalence:

High school athletes - 20%
College athletes - 10%
Contact sports: football, hockey, soccer, basketball, lacrosse.
Noncontact sports: gymnastics, skiing, ice skating

2

What are the types of traumatic brain injuries?

Penetrating Injury
Closed Head Injury

3

What causes primary damage in traumatic brain injury?

Skull fracture
Contusions/bruising
Hematomas/blood clots
Lacerations
Nerve damage - diffuse axonal injury

4

What is secondary damage in traumatic brain injury?

edema
infection

5

signs and symptoms of concussion

disoriented
amnesia
confusion: vacant state, delayed answers to questions, poor concentration

6

What percentage of concussions involve loss of consciousness?

10%

7

Concussion Grade 1

"Ding" Concussion
Confusion
No loss of consciousness
Symptoms <15 minutes

8

Concussion Grade 2

No loss of consciousness
Symptoms >15 minutes

9

Concussion Grade 3

Loss of consciousness.

10

What is a minor score on the Glasgow coma scale?

13-15

11

What is a moderate head injury on the Glasgow coma scale?

9-12

12

What is a severe head injury according to the Glasgow coma scale?

<8

13

Concussion Red Flags

Mental status change.
LOC>60 seconds.
Pupillary asymmetry.
Vision change.
Muscle/sensory deficits.
Cerebellar dysfunction: gait/ataxia, finger to nose testing.

14

What is an absolute indication for a CT scan for concussion?

Seizure
Neuro deficit
Anticoagulants - coumadin

15

Relative indications for concussion CT

Glasgow 60-65 yo
Basilar skull fracture
Moderate pretrauma amnesia >15 min
Drug/alcohol intoxication
High risk injury: pedestrian MVA, fall from height >3 feet or >5 stairs

16

Where to basilar skull fractures occur?

Temporal Bone
Occipital Bone
Sphenoid Bone
Ethmoid Bone

Only accounts for 4% of fractures.

17

What might you see with a basal skull fracture?

Hemotympanum
Battles Sign - mastoid process ecchymosis
Raccoon eyes - periorbital ecchymosis
CSF leakage via nose or ears

18

Other types of skull fractures

2/3 have intracranial lesion present
Simple - no treatment
Depressed - surgical intervention

19

Concussion treatment

Rest - second impact syndrome
Most common post-concussion symptoms: headache, dizziness, impaired executive function

20

What is the process for a patient with a concussion to return to play?

Asymptomatic and medication free x 24 hours
Nonimpact aerobic exercise to increase HR x 24 hours
Sport-specific light drills x 24 hours
Non-contact training drills x 24 hours
Full contact practice x 24 hours
Return to play

21

What happens if concussion symptoms return at any point?

STOP and rest until symptoms clear x 24 hours and restart at current level.

22

How to athletes with multiple concussions recover?

Take longer to heal with each successive injury.

23

Who is at higher risk for post concussion syndrome?

Symptoms > 3 months
HA, dizziness, impaired executive function
Mood changes/depression
Insomnia
Tinnitus, Vertigo

24

What is a subdural hematoma?

Bleeding between the dura mater and arachnoid layer.

25

What causes subdural hematoma?

Tearing of the "bridging veins."
Shearing injury; acceleration-deceleration.
Result of trauma: acute, chronic (elderly).

26

What do you see on CT for a subdural hematoma?

"Crescent-shaped"
Midline shift

27

What causes subdural hematoma in the young?

Head trauma - motor vehicle accident
Shaken baby syndrome

28

What causes subdural hematoma in the elderly?

Chronic trauma may be so minor it has been forgotten.
Anticoagulation is a risk factor
Age alone! (Cerebral atrophy, increases strength/tension on bridging veins)

29

Signs and symptoms of a subdural hematoma:

Confusion
Slurred Speech
Headache
Lethargy
Loss of Consciousness
Nausea/Vomiting
Weakness

30

Treatment for a smaller Subdural Hematoma

Burr Holes

31

Treatment for a larger Subdural Hematoma

Craniotomy to evacuate clots.

32

What do you see for an epidural hematoma on CT?

Biconcave lens

33

What is an epidural hematoma?

Bleeding between the dura mater and the skull.

34

What causes epidural hematoma?

Trauma
Skull fracture

35

What is artery causes epidural hematoma?

Caused by tearing of the Middle Meningeal Artery

36

What type of trauma causes epidural hematoma?

Blunt trauma.

37

How do epidural hematomas evolve?

Evolve more rapidly.
Classic presentation - initial loss of consciousness and then lucid.
"Talk and Die"

Often unconscious at presentation.

38

Treatment of Epidural Hematoma

Surgical evacuation
Ligate bleeding vessels

39

What is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Bleeding into the subarachnoid space.

40

What causes subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Usually due to rupture of cerebral aneurysm

41

How is a subarachnoid hemorrhage described by the patient?

"Thunderclap Headache"
"Headache of a lifetime"

42

How does a subarachnoid hemorrhage present?

Headache of a lifetime
Nausea/vomiting
Stiff neck
Confusion
Seizures
May report a popping/snapping prior to headache

43

What should be ordered for a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage?

CT without contrast.
Best within first 12 hours (beyond that sensitivity decreases)
7% will not appear on initial CT.

44

What will be seen with a lumbar puncture in a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Blood

45

How is a subarachnoid hemorrhage treated?

Depends on location, size, and preference of neurosurgeon.

46

What is the pathophysiology of a stroke?

Blockage or rupture of a cerebral artery.

47

What are the types of stroke?

Ischemic (87%)
Hemorrhagic (13%)

48

What are the types of hemorrhagic stroke?

Intracerebral hemorrhage (10%)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (3%)

49

What causes an intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke?

HTN
Aneurysm, AVM

50

What is the largest cause of hemorrhagic stroke?

Ruptured berry aneurysm (80%)
AVM (10%)
Other (10%)

51

What are arterio-venous malformation?

Occur in less than 1% of the population.
Sxs: pulsatile tinnitus, HA, seizures

52

Prevalence of aneurysms

3-5 million people
0.5-3% will bleed

53

Where do aneurysms develop?

Branching points of arteries typically over the age of 40.

54

Risk factors for aneurysm development:

+/- women
+/- African American
Increased age, peaks ~50

55

Risk factors to bleeding aneurysm:

HTN
Straining
Cocaine/amphetamines
Blood thinners (Warfarin)
Alcohol use

56

What is a "sentinal bleed"?

Warning leak. Some patients may have mild bleeding at the site one to two days prior to the larger event.

Milder HA
Neck stiffness
Nausea

57

Hemorrhagic Stroke Statistics

10-15% die before reaching the hospital.
25% die within first 24 hours.
40% die in first month.
50% die in the first 6 months.
If rebleeding occurs, 50-80% mortality.
1/3 survivors will have no neuro deficits.
Most will experience some degree of cognitive deficits even if good prognosis.

58

Complications of hemorrhagic stroke:

Rebleeding
Hydrocephalus
Cerebral ischemia - blood is an irritant that causes vasospasm.

59

Management goals of hemorrhagic stroke:

SBP <20 mmHg)
Normothermia

60

Ischemic Stroke Stats

4th leading cause of death in US
Mortality 16%
Persistent hemiparesis at 6 mos - 15%
Persistent aphasia at 6 mos - 15%
Recovery to baseline - 15%

61

Pathophysiology of Ischemic Stroke

Thrombotic (more common) - atherosclerosis: injured endothelial lining allows platelets to adhere; plaque formation.

Embolic- carotid arteries**, Heart

Lacunar infarcts - least common

62

Risk factors for ischemic stroke:

HTN
African American
Obesity
Sedentary Lifestyle
Family hx
Age >65 yo
CAD
Cigarette smoking (>35, OC use)
Increased cholesterol/triglycerides
Aortic arch plaque
+/- migraine with aura in women >35 that smoke and or use OCs

Less common: Hypercoaguable state, hyperviscocity - polycythemia vera, subclavian steal syndrome

63

What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?

Sudden onset of neurologic deficit
-speech
-monocular blindness
-hemiparesis

64

What is amaurosis fugax and what is it associated with?

Sudden, monocular blindness described as a shade or curtain being pulled over the eye (and then being pulled back up).

TIA

65

What imaging abnormalities will you see with a TIA?

None

66

How do the symptoms of a TIA progress?

Resolve within 24 hours - most within 10 minutes.

67

What can follow a TIA?

Stroke will follow TIA within 90 days in 20-25% of cases.

68

How do you evaluate for an ischemic stroke?

Head CT (or MRI)
If cardiac source of emboli suspected - TEE
Carotid US for carotid artery stenosis.

69

What is carotid artery stenosis?

Plaque forms in the common carotid.

Typically affects the bifurcation and flow into the internal carotid artery.

70

When would you hear a carotid artery bruit?

At 50% occlusion

71

What are the diagnostics for carotid artery disease?

Gold Standard: Angiography (highly invasive)

Carotid US or Carotid artery MRA ($$$$$)

72

What are the treatments for carotid artery disease?

Surgery - endarterectomy
Medical Management

73

When do you perform an endartectomy for carotid artery disease?

Asymptomatic patients with >80% stenosis.
Symptomatic patients with >50% stenosis.

74

When do you perform medical management for carotid artery disease?

Asymptomatic patients >60% but 50%.

75

What drugs are used for the medical management of carotid artery disease?

ASA 18-22% RR Reduction
Plavix OR dipyridamole + ASA (Aggrenox) 37%
NO PLAVIX + ASA

76

What is a lacunar infarct?

Occlusion of single deep penetrating artery.

Specific lacunar syndromes described but may also be "silent"

77

What does a lacunar infarct effect?

Deep nuclei: caudate, thalamus, putamen

78

Where does an ischemic stroke occur in anterior circulation?

Anterior Cerebral Artery
Middle Cerebral Artery

79

Where does an ischemic stroke occur in posterior circulation?

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
Vertebrobasilar Artery
Posterior Cerebral Artery

80

What are the symptoms of an anterior cerebral artery occlusion?

Confusion
Amnesia
Personality change: flat, apathetic
Cognitive change: short attention span, slowness
Contralateral hemiparesis
Contralateral sensory impairment.
If left- expressive aphasia.
Eyes deviate toward affected side.

81

What is the most common artery for an embolus-caused ischemic stroke?

Middle Cerebral Artery

82

What are the symptoms for a middle cerebral artery occlusion?

Contralateral sensory/motor deficits - Face and arm> leg
Head/eyes deviate towards infarct.
NEGLECT to affected side.
Dysphagia
Initially decreased muscle tone then spasticity develops.
Homonymous hemianopia.
If left dom hemisphere effected: global aphasia then Broca's (expressive)

83

What are the signs/symptoms of posterior circulation blockage?

Nystagmus
Ataxia
Vertigo
Dysphagia
Dysarthria

84

What are the signs of a posterior cerebral artery blockage?

May have sensory aphasia (cannot comprehend spoken or written words)
Alexia

85

How do you assess a stroke patient pre-hospital

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
-Facial droop - show teeth (abnl if asymptomatic)
Arm drigt - abnl with drifts or unable to lift
Dysarthria - "you can't teach an old dog new tricks"

86

Cincinnati Stroke Scale Scoring

Score of 1 - CVA in 72% of cases
Score of 3 - CVA in 85% of cases

87

What else should be ordered if you suspect a CVA?

Fingertsick glucose.

88

How long should your hospital assessment last?

General Assessment - <25 min
-If hemorrhagic - angiography, neurosx consult
- Neg. but high suspicion for SAH, LP

89

What is the scoring for the NIH Stroke Scale for imaging and assessment?

0 = No Stroke
1-4 = Minor Stroke
5-15 = Moderate Stroke
16-20 = Mod-Severe Stroke
21-41 = Severe Stroke