Flashcards in Treaty of Versailles Deck (24)
What is the date of the Treaty of Versailles?
June 28th, 1919
Why is it a super important document?
It's how WWI ends, and what starts WWII.
How was on the council for this document?
Clemenceau of France, Wilson of the US, Lloyd George of the UK, and Orlando of Italy.
What two significant countries were missing from the council and why?
Germany and Russia.
WHY: Germany has no say, and Russia had already signed the Brest-Litovsk.
What were the four biggest ideas of the treaty?
1) Destroy German militarism
2) Restore stability in states where leadership had disappeared
3) Redraw the map of Europe
4) Create a "new world order" where such a war could not happen again.
What regions were taken away (permanently and temporarily) from Germany and given to France?
Alsace-Lorraine, Saar Valley, and the Rhineland.
What was special about the Saar Valley and the Rhineland?
After 15 years, France/League of Nations could DECIDE to give these places back to Germany.
They were the location of the most productive farmlands and mines.
What does the term "reparations" mean?
Paying back as a kind of punishment.
What did France receive in reparations from Germany's land?
The coalfields in the Saar Valley and/or the Rhineland, for five years.
What did the Saar Valley and the Rhineland include, economically?
10% of manufacturing
14% of iron ore
15% of agricultural land
16% of coal
With all of the land and income taken away from Germany, what will this lead to?
The reparations lead to economic crisis.
With all of the land taken away, what percent of the population and territory was reduced?
10%, and it was mostly from colonies.
True or False: If Austria now has an entirely German population, is Germany forbidden from uniting with Austria?
TRUE, the League forbid this uniting.
What was the amount of monetary reparations against Germany in 1921 and why was it so high?
$33 BILLION (10% of the total cost of war).
It was so high in order for revenge that could destroy the economy.
How was the newly independent country of Poland enhanced by this treaty?
Borders of Poland were reestablished and gained access to the Baltic Sea, when some of Germany's land was taken away.
What happened to Austria-Hungary?
DISMANTLED; separate nations created.
WHAT is the "war guilt clause"???
It's a spiritually debilitating document that Germany was forced to sign. It had reparations to allied countries, and it ASSIGNS BLAME but also provides justification for reparations payments.
What could "war guilt clause" translate to?
"Germany has complete blame"
For protection of France, what happened around the Rhine River?
Demilitarize zone, established 30 miles east of the Rhine.
How is the German army limited in terms of their soldiers and general staff?
Limited to 100,000 men.
General staff: abolished
Where did Germany's navy and air force go?
Given to Allies, and submarines were not allowed to be built/maintained, and NO AIR FORCE ALLOWED
What is the significance of the now-void Brest-Litovsk treaty?
The land that Germany won during the war is now given back to Russia.
What was the end result of the Treaty of Versailles for Germany?
Created EXTREME nationalism because of the political desperation created.