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Flashcards in Treaty Of Versailles Deck (26):
1

Motives of Georges Clemenceau (4)

1) French economy was in a terrible state - French economy had shrunk by 25% during the war
- 100s of square miles of agriculture destroyed
2) Massive death toll - about 1.4m military and 40,000 civilian
3) Future security concerns - because Germany had invaded twice in the recent past (1914 and 1871)
4) Huge public anger and pressure to destroy Germany

2

Aims of Woodrow Wilson at Versailles (4)

1) to avoid another war and create peace between countries
2) for Eastern European countries to rule themselves, instead of by Austro- Hungary
3) wanted LoN
4) for Germany not to be punished too badly

3

Motives of Wilson at Versailles (5)

1) he believed in self determination for E.E countries
2) he believed that nations should co operate for world peace which he thought would help avoid war
3) didn't want Germany to recover and seek revenge
4) limited death toll and no economic losses
5) lack of public anger

4

Aim of Lloyd George at Versailles

To get Germany to lose its navy, but also to start trading again

5

Motives of Lloyd George at Versailles (3)

1) he thought that Germany threatened the British Empire
2) before WW1, Germany had been Britain's second largest trading partner and trading again would mean jobs for British people
3) also did not want Germany to seek revenge and start another war
4) large death toll (about 817,000)

6

Military terms of ToV (4)

1) army limited to 100,000
2) tanks were banned
3) navy limited to 6 battleships
4) Rhineland was demilitarised

7

Territorial terms of ToV (7)

1) Alsace-Lorraine to France
2) West Prussia, Posen and part of Upper Silesia to Poland
3) Danzig to control of LoN
4) Saarland to control of LoN for 15 years (French control of coal mines)
5) German colonies confiscated
6) Small territories to Belgium Denmark and Lithuania

8

Other terms of ToV (2)

1) war guilt clause 231
2) reparations £6.6bn
3) Anschluss: Germany forbidden to unite with Austria

9

Aim of Georges Clemenceau at Versailles

To greatly weaken Germany as an entire nation

10

What were the other European peace treaties

Treaty of St Germain 1919 Austria
Treaty of Neuilly 1919 Bulgaria
Treaty of Trianon 1920 Hungary
Treaty of Sevres 1920 Turkey

11

Treaty of St Germain
Territorial (3)
Other (2)
Effects (1)

1919 Austria
Galicia to Poland
Bohemia and Moravia to Czechoslovakia
Croatia to Yugoslavia
Army restricted to 30,000
Anschluss
Economic collapse because lose industrial areas to Czechoslovakia

12

Treaty of Neuilly
Territorial (2)
Other (2)
Effects (1)

Loses land to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia
Loses access to Mediterranean
Army restricted to 20,000
Reparations £100 million
Many Bulgarians governed by foreign powers by 1920

13

Treaty of Trianon
Territorial (3)
Other (3)
Effects (3)

Transylvania to Romania
Slovakia and Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia
Slovenia and Croatia to Yugoslavia
Army restricted to 35,000
No conscription or air force
Due to pay reparations, but couldn't
Loss of land and population (3 million people ended up in other territories)
Industry suffered loss of people and raw materials
Economic collapse

14

Treaty of Sevres
Territorial (3)
Other (3)
Effects (1)

Smyrna to Greece
Syria to France (as mandate)
Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco now independent or under Fr or Br protection
Army restricted to 50,000
No air force
Reparations
Turkish nationalists challenged terms of the treaty when they drove the Greeks out of Smyrna. Treaty of Lausanne (1923) returned Smyrna to Turkey

15

Reasons ToV was fair/not harsh (4)

1) only took limited land from Germany e.g. Alsace-Lorraine and polish corridor: most weren't German speakers and considered themselves French or Polish anyway
2) German army leaders retained to maintain public order
3) Germans only used 14 points in their favour. When they were defeated they said that they should get peace although when they were winning they ignored this (in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk)
4) strength of German economy was not destroyed and soon recovered in the steel industry in 1925

16

Reasons treaty was unfair/harsh (6)

1) WW1 can not be solely blamed on Germany. British imperialism and arms race also contributed
2) when war had stopped Germany expected to be dealt with under the 14 points about peach and justice but this is not what happened e.g. War guilt clause and reparations (£6.6bn)
3) aim to destroy German economy was good for no one, including all European trade
4) reparations bill was not decided until 1921, despite ToV being signed in 1919. This figure was set at £6.6bn, which is deemed to be crippling to the economy
5) punished ordinary people, instead of rulers and army leaders, who were hurt by reparations
6) troops reduced to 100,000 and no air force, unfair as other countries failed to disarm

17

Reasons treaty was wise (2)

1) German army leaders were retained to maintain public order
2) strength of German economy was not destroyed and soon recovered in the steel industry in 1925

18

Reasons ToV was unwise (2)

1) aim to destroy German economy was good for no one, including all European trade.
2) reparations bill was not decided until 1921, despite ToV being signed in 1919. This figure was set at £6.6bn, which is deemed to be crippling to the economy

19

What were the negative political impacts of the Treaty on Germany?

1919 - new government set up called the Weimar Republic
Between 1919 and 1923 there were several attempts to overthrow the new government:
- Jan 1919 - communist revolutionaries ('Spartacists') tried to stage a revolution in Berlin and in April, communists tried to seize power in Munich - both of these rebellions were smashed by the Freikorps
- 1920 - a Freikorps force attempted to seize Berlin - the army sympathised with the Freikorps and refused to fight them
- Nov 1923 - Munich Putsch - Adolf Hitler launched a rebellion as a right-wing attempt to seize power

20

What were the negative economic impacts of the Treaty on Germany?

1923 - the French invaded the Ruhr valley because the German government failed to pay their reparations instalment
- This created strikes as the Ruhr was the centre of German industry and the Germans refused to work for the French
- The German government responded by printing more money to pay the workers. But this got out of hand and lead to hyperinflation where the banknotes were virtually worthless

21

Why did Clemenceau get what he wanted from the Treaty?

1) He gained territory and Germany lost territory - during the war, 100s of square miles of french agricultural land was destroyed by gas and shelling. Under the Treaty Germany gave Alsace-Lorraine to France. Germany also lost lots of other land which would satisfy Clemenceau
2) Germany was greatly weakened, especially militarily - Clemenceau still feared Germany and he had future security concerns for France as Germany had invaded twice in the recent past (1871 and 1914). Under the Treaty, Germany's air force was abolished, its army was limited to only 100,000 men and the Rhineland was demilitarised

22

Why did Clemenceau not get what he wanted from the Treaty?

The French people hated Germany and therefore wanted an even harsher treaty
e.g. Germany still had an army of 100,000 men and even though the reparations bill was very tough, by 1925 Germany's steel industry was back to how it was in 1914 and the economy had mostly recovered

23

Why did Lloyd-George get what he wanted from the Treaty?

Germany's navy had been greatly weakened by the Treaty, so Germany would be less of a threat to the British Empire
They were punished harshly, which is what Lloyd George wanted as Britain had suffered lots of human losses

24

Why did Lloyd George not get what he wanted from the Treaty?

Germany's economy was greatly weakened so it was not able to trade effectively with Britain, which is what Lloyd George wanted

25

Why did Wilson get what he wanted from the Treaty?

The League of Nations was set up
Germany still had an army and by 1925 its economy had recovered

26

Why did Wilson not get what he wanted from the Treaty?

It was not signed by the Americans so he did not have the support of his people
His fourteen points were not used when deciding on the terms of the Treaty