Flashcards in Tumours and teratoma Deck (16):
Is a teratoma a benign or malignant tumour? Why?
Benign as it is encapsulated
What may a teratoma contain?
Organs such as teeth/hair/bones
What may the tissues of a teratoma resemble?
The 3 germ layers
What are the 3 germ layers
Endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm
What are the 2 categories of tumours
Benign and malignant
Describe some features of a benign tumour
Uniform in shape, grow slowly as little cell division occurs, smooth surface and is encapsulated
Describe some features of a malignant tumour
Lots of cell division occurs, has very large nucleus containing abnormal DNA, it grows quickly and is noticeably different from normal tumour
What clinical effects do benign tumours cause
increased pressure in the area and effects hormone secretion
\What clinical effects do malignant tumours have
Causes pressure/destruction. Secretes inappropriate hormones. Causes cancer
How are benign tumour treated
Surgery via local incision
How are malignant tumours treated
An increase in the size of an organ due to cell proliferation
Increase in the size of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells
How can the loss of both tumour suppresor genes cause cancer
TS genes mutate and become inactive. They lose their breaking power and uncontrollable cell division occurs.
Give an example of a tumour suppressor gene and how it can cause cancer
Retinoblastmo (RB) is involved in the checkpoint at the end of G1 in the cell cycle. It stops the expression of genes so cells can enter the s phase. When inactivated, the expression of genes continues, resulting in uncontrollable cell division