Tumours and teratoma Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 week 4 cancer > Tumours and teratoma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumours and teratoma Deck (16):

Is a teratoma a benign or malignant tumour? Why?

Benign as it is encapsulated


What may a teratoma contain?

Organs such as teeth/hair/bones


What may the tissues of a teratoma resemble?

The 3 germ layers


What are the 3 germ layers

Endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm


What are the 2 categories of tumours

Benign and malignant


Describe some features of a benign tumour

Uniform in shape, grow slowly as little cell division occurs, smooth surface and is encapsulated


Describe some features of a malignant tumour

Lots of cell division occurs, has very large nucleus containing abnormal DNA, it grows quickly and is noticeably different from normal tumour


What clinical effects do benign tumours cause

increased pressure in the area and effects hormone secretion


\What clinical effects do malignant tumours have

Causes pressure/destruction. Secretes inappropriate hormones. Causes cancer


How are benign tumour treated

Surgery via local incision


How are malignant tumours treated

chemo/radio therapy


Define hyperplasia

An increase in the size of an organ due to cell proliferation


Define hypertrophy

Increase in the size of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells


How can the loss of both tumour suppresor genes cause cancer

TS genes mutate and become inactive. They lose their breaking power and uncontrollable cell division occurs.


Give an example of a tumour suppressor gene and how it can cause cancer

Retinoblastmo (RB) is involved in the checkpoint at the end of G1 in the cell cycle. It stops the expression of genes so cells can enter the s phase. When inactivated, the expression of genes continues, resulting in uncontrollable cell division


How can the activation of a protoncogene cause cancer

Mutates to form oncogene, which stimulates excessive cell division as instead of stopping within g1 a tumour cell will continue through the whole cell cycle