types of brain tumors Flashcards Preview

brain and spinal tumors > types of brain tumors > Flashcards

Flashcards in types of brain tumors Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1

brain tumors are classified by what?

histology
can be malignant or benign

2

gliomas

include astrocytomas- spreads by infiltrating surrounding tissues
start in the glial cells

3

meningiomas

tumors of the menigies
encapsulated
slow growing
benign
symptoms are due to compression rather than invasion

4

acoustic neuromas

tumor of the 8th cranial nerve
vertigo, tinnitus, loss of hearing, slow growing internal meatus
may be benign- removed or radiotherapy

5

pituitary adenomas

deep in the center of the brain
symptoms develop because of the pressure
hyper or hypofunction of the pituitary gland
surgery or radiation
have mood swings, also pushes on optic nerve, chiasm, frontal lobe

6

metastatic tumors

secondary to other cancers

7

pituitary hormones

GH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, ADH, oxytocin and cortisol

8

clinical manifestations of brain tumors

general neuro symptoms
increased icp
h/a
n/v
visual disturbances (papilledema)
sezuires- focal or generalized
hormonal effects with pituitary adenoma
loss of hearing, tinnitus, vertigo (acoustic neuroma)

9

manifestations of icp

decrease hr
inc bp
decrease rr
stupor to coma
monitor for cheynne strokes

10

ICP monitoring

a drain may be placed, when icp raises, csf is drained, when it returns to normal, close drain

11

co2 effects on vessels in the brain

the more the co2 the more vasodilitation occurs

12

normal icp

10-20

13

if csf shifts and icp keeps rising what will happen?

brain stem herniation

14

coma

unconsciousness, unarousable, unresponsiveness

15

akinetic mutism

unresponsiveness to environment
sometimes open eyes

16

persistent vegetative state

devoid of cognitive function but has sleep wake cycles

17

locked in syndrome

inability to move or respond except for eye movement, due to leison on pons

18

trx of brain tumors

surgery- craniotomy, transphenoidal, stereotactic procedures
radiation (gamma-external), (brachytherapy) (stereotactic)
chemotherapy- must cross blood brain barrier

19

supportive drugs for brain tumors

steroids
mannitol
phenobarbital

20

assessment and interventions for brain tumors

pain management of HA
elevate HOB (decrease icp and prevent aspiration)
antiemetics
prophylactic seizure meds
motor function (pt/ot)
speech eval (alternatives for communication)

21

Diabetes insipidus

no release of ADH
excessive fluid loss (decreased specific gravity)
dehydration
electrolyte imbalance
Management:
IV fluids (3% NS)
Vasopressin (dDVAP)
*draw bloods before intervening*

22

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiruetic hormone

too much ADH therefore water is retained
leads to water intoxication (r/t excess thirst)
hyponatremia (water retained, sodium becomes depleted)
Management:
fluid restriction
KCL supplements and increase K in diet

23

maintaining an airway

frequent lung assessments
repositioning
hob 30 degress
lateral or semi prone
suctioning and oral hygiene

24

nursing process

frequent neuro checks
ICP monitoring
pain level
s/s of seizures
ADLS
nutritional support
patients functional abilities
sleep disturbances
aspiration precautions
foley? to prevent constant t and p and increased icp

25

complications

DVT, PE
CSF leak
new signs and symptoms- cancer may have spread