Flashcards in Understanding the modern world: America opportunity/ equality Deck (43):
Henry Ford + Mass Production (stats sales)
Henry Ford created the Assembly line: this encouraged mass production: cars now only took 1hour to build compared to 13.5.
In 1919 60 000 radios were sold but in 1929 10million were sold.
Telephones went from 10million (1915)- 20million(1930)
How many women now had jobs in 1929? - how many compared to before 1920s?
10 million had jobs 1929.
24% more than in 1920s.
Presidents and their republican policies:
Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover: All believed in Laissez-faire (no government involvement)
Hoover believed in Rugged individualism (individual citizens should be responsible for themselves.)
What did the cycle of prosperity introduce?
Isolationism: Government introduced high tariffs on overseas oviducts to avoid competition.
Technology: New products available to buy.
Mass production: Ford's assembly line increased production everywhere.
Hire purchase: increased demand for goods - buy now pay later.
Shares Business raised money selling stock exchange shares.
KKK membership 1920s
Increased dramtically in 1920s.
Between 1-8million members by mid 20s.
Took part in whippings, tar and feather attacks, lynchings.
Which groups of women changed during 1920s? in contrast to who?
Younger women in Northern urban cities
-this contrasted the traditional women in the south whom still made up the majority of the population.
Which events showed blacks loyalty to the us army?
-Pearl harbour Hero
-Battle of Bulge
How did war impact women in working?
300,000 women joined forces.
7million joined work forces.
12million working women.
Percentage of women working went from 35-50% between 1941-45.
Why did war bring about economic recovery?
Created supply and demand.
California had 1.5 million new workers.
14 million people worked in factories.
7million women joined work forces.
Roosevelt's measures of the new deal:
-getting industry and agriculture back on its feet.
-Protecting Americans savings and property.
-Americans getting back to work.
-Relief for the sick, old and unemployed.
Opposition to the new deal
-Conservatives said Roosevelt spent too much government money.
-Wealthy business men said in raising taxes Roosevelt had betrayed his own class.
-Ordinary people wondered why he was helping them.
Who didn't benefit from the boom?
Farmers - suffered due to overproduction since ww1
Workers in old industries-Machines took places of workers.
Unemployed and poor- 60% of population was in poverty and therefore couldn't afford consumer goods.
Why were Supreme Court against the new deal?
Saw Roosevelt as a dictator
Actions were undermining states power.
Unconstitutional as it interferred with people's lives too much.
Members were all Republican.
Why were radical politicians against the New Deal?
New deal wasn't doing enough
Blacks and farmers remained in a very bad way.
Two named examples of people against Roosevelts New Deal
Huey Long - a senator
Why was father Coughlin opposed to the new deal?
Set up radio programme to broadcast disapproval
Believed Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to help the poor.
Why was Huey Long opposed to the new deal?
Senator wanting to tax rich more
In his share our wealth plan.
Make the new deal less complicated to help the poor.
1932 election - Why was Roosevelt elected?
Reasurred and related to ordinary American's situations.
Inspired hope in Americans.
1932 election - Hoover's failure
He believed government still shouldn't get involved "in Hoover we trusted, now we are busted"
Roosevelt's first 100 days.
- $500million spent helping poor.
-Fireside chats 60million listeners.
-Created trustworthy banks.
-Agrucultural Adjustment Administration helped farmers.
-Civilian Conservation Corps got 2.5 million men out of unemployement.
How much did membership for NAACP rise by 1945?
What is NAACP?
From 50,000 - half a million.
Main blacks campaign for equality.
How did war impact Blacks?
End od 1944 2 million were working in factories.
blacks found racism wasn't normal outside of the south
NAACP rose from 50 000 to 1/2 million by 1945.
Over 1million fought ww2
Pop Culture 1950s
Television, radio and cinema
Musicals made into films.
The American Dream
Attitudes towards spending and saving-Spending rather than saving
Lifestyle-Relied on new machines (cars, refrigerators)
Attitudes towards consumer products-Modern conveniences became expected.
Spread of wealth-1960 living standards was 3x that of a British person.
The dark side
Communism made people scared
Fears tightened in 1949
When China turned communist.
Segregation 1950s-1960s/Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws segregated everyday facilities like Buses parks and schools.
African Americans rights to vote 1950s-1960s
Blacks were threatened + intimidated to prevent them from voting.
only 5% of African Americans voted in Mississippi.
Linda Brown V Board 1954
African American girl had to travel dangerously to school.
1954 Brown won the case Southern states had to set up integrated schools.
Rosa Parks Montgomery bus Boycott 1955
No room at the back of a segregated bus. Rosa parks sat in front of the bus. She was arrested Blacks stopped riding the buses.
This resulted in desegregation of all public transport. Showed successful peaceful protest.
Little Rock 1957
Supreme Court ordered governor of Arkansas to allow 9 Black students to attend a white school.
Faubus ordered state troops to prevent students entering.
Eisenhower sent his troops to make sure the children were safe.
MLK Peaceful Protests Sit-ins 1960
Blacks sat in restaurants where whites usually sat and refused to stand up. Number of protesters went from 23- 400.
Bust - unemployment
Overproduction - everyone who wanted new goods already had them - this meant companies went out of business and people lost their jobs
Great Society 1960 - benefits of unemployment
- more aid to poor cities
-increases in social security
-help for rural farmers
-Economic Opportunity Act 1964.
Presidents after Eisenhower
JFK elected after Eisenhower - promised to change society
JKF assassinated 1963 - Lyndon B Johnson took over 1964
Voting rights act 1965
Inforced because of MLKs peaceful protests
Act allowed government officials to inspect voting to ensure it was done properly.
Malcom X and Black Power Beliefs
Violence justified to achieve equality
Some wanted complete separation and a 'black state'
Focussed on Northern 'officially un-racist' inner city blacks who faced poverty and police brutality - not southern racism.
Focussed on trying to improve blacks living conditions.
MLK Freedom Rides 1961
Although buses were de-seg by law this wasn't always enforced. Freedom riders rode these buses - this resulted in some of the worst violence of the campaign. 200 freedom fighters arrested, 40 went to jail.
march on Washington 1963
Martin Luther King staged march on Washington of 250 000 people to pressure Kennedy to pass Civil right bill.
MLK said 'I have a dream' speech
Civil rights act 1964
Kennedy assassinated 1964 act made it illegal for local government to discriminate in areas of housing and employment.
430 000 African Americans registered to vote.
MLK organised 'voting rights' march through selma, Alabama with racist Sheriff Jim Clark - authorities banned the march 600 people continued.
'Bloody Sunday' 7th March. March was rearranged however turned back.
National Organisation for women 1966:
-Betty Friedan Adopted bill of rights 1967
-Fight for equal pay
-Roe v Wade made abortion legal
-Supreme Court ruling on equal rights
-1972 contraception made widely available to un married couples
- Some opposition to amendment 1972 as not all women agreed with these changes.
Race Riots 1965-1967
In cities of North and West Whih had large numbers of African American population.