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Features of a chemical reaction

Irreversible change where a new substance is formed

1

Examples of chemical reactions

Food cooking, matches burning, food being digested

2

What are some signs of a chemical reaction

Colour change, temperature change, solid formed (precipitate), gas given off, energy change

3

Features of a physical change

Reversible change where a substance changes state e.g. Water to ice

4

Examples of physical changes

Ice melting, water evaporating, water freezing

5

What is the names of Group 1, Group 7 and Group 8/0?

Group 1- The Alkali Metals
Group 7- The Halogens
Group 8/0- the Noble Gases

6

What is the name of the process used to break up compounds into elements using electricity?

Electrolysis

7

What is the definition of an atom?

An atom is the smallest particle of an element

8

What is the definition of an element?

An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed

9

What is the definition of a compound.

A compound is a substance made up of 2 or more different elements that are chemically joined

10

What is the definition of a mixture.

A mixture is elements put together but not chemically joined

11

What is the definition of a molecule?

A molecule is the smallest physical unit of an element or a compound

12

What does endothermic mean?

Endothermic is when energy is taken in

13

What does exothermic mean?

Exothermic is when energy is released

14

What is a solute?

A solute is the substances being dissolved

15

What is a solvent?

A solvent is the liquid in which the solute is dissolved

16

What is a solution?

A solution is formed when a solute is dissolves in a solvent

17

What is the test for Hydrogen?

Burns with a squeaky pop

18

What is the test for Oxygen?

Relights a glowing splint

19

What is the test for Carbon Dioxide?

Turns limewater cloudy

20

What is the mass, charge and location in atom of Electrons?

0 amu, negative charge and is located outside of the nucleus

21

What is the mass, charge and location in atom of Protons?

1 amu, positive charge and is located inside the nucleus

22

What is the mass, charge and location in atom of Neutrons?

1 amu, no charge and is located inside the nucleus

23

Why are atoms neutral?

Atoms are neutral because there is an equal number of protons and electrons

24

What is an atomic number?

The atomic number is the number of protons in the element

25

What is the mass number?

The mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons

26

What are reactants.

The chemicals present at the start of a reaction

27

What are products?

The chemicals at the end of a reaction

28

What is the gas produced when magnesium reacts with acid?

Hydrogen

29

What is the gas produced when limestone reacts with acid?

Carbon Dioxide

30

What is the fire triangle?

Oxygen Heat

Fuel

31

What is the word equation for magnesium reacting with the air?

Magnesium + Oxygen ➡️ Magnesium Oxide

32

To calculate the average rate

Change is mass over time taken

Change in volume over time taken

Change in concentration over time taken

33

What would the electron arrangement of an atom with 19 electrons be?

2,8,8,1

34

Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the following ions:
a) 35 - b) 15 3-
Cl N
17 7

a) protons - 17 b) protons - 7
neutrons - 18 neutrons - 8
electrons - 18 electrons - 10

35

What is an isotope?

Isotopes are atoms of the same element but have different number of neutrons and different mass numbers

36

Copper has a relative atomic mass of 63.5. It contains two isotopes:
63 65
Cu and Cu
Which isotope is most common in copper? Explain your answer

63
Cu
Because 63.5 is closer to 63 than 65 is

37

What does diatomic mean?

They go around in pairs

38

What are all of the diatomic molecules?

Fluorine, Chlorine, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Bromine and Iodine

39

Write the formulae for boron fluoride and aluminium oxide

BF
3

Al O
2 3

40

Why do atoms gain/lose electrons?

So that they have full outer energy levels and are stable like the noble gases

41

What is the ionic formula for calcium fluoride?

2+ -
Ca (F )
2

42

What is the ionic formula for ammonium carbonate?

+ 2-
(NH ) CO
4 3

43

Balance this equation:

H + O ➡️ H O
2 2 2

2H + O ➡️ 2H O
2 2 2

44

Balance this equation:

Mg + PbBr ➡️ MgBr + Pb
4 2


2Mg + PbBr ➡️ 2MgBr + Pb
4 2

45

Balance this equation:

P + O ➡️ P O
2 2 5


4P + 5O ➡️ 2P O
2 2 5

46

Balance this equation:

C H + O ➡️ CO + H O
4 8 2 2 2


C H + 6O ➡️ 4CO + 4H O
4 8 2 2 2

47

Calculate the formula mass for NaCl

58.5g

48

Calculate the formula mass for Mg (PO )
3 4 2

263.5g

49

What is meant by decomposition?

It breaks down into its simplest form

50

What happens to the speed of the reaction when a catalyst is added?

The reaction speeds up

51

How could you recover a catalyst at the end of a reaction?

Filter the catalyst out

52

What type of elements conduct electricity?

Metals

53

What type of elements do not conduct electricity?

Non-metals

54

What is an electrolyte?

An electrolyte is a liquid which can carry an electric current through it. Ionic solutions are electrolytes

55

What is electrolysis?

Electrolysis describes the process which takes place when an ionic solution has electricity passed through it

56

What is the valency rule?

Group number - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Valency - 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0

57

What is the rule for ionic charges?

Groups number - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Charge on ion - 1+ 2+ 3+ no charge 3- 2- 1-

58

What is the formulae for carbon tetrachloride?

CCl
4

59

What is the formulae for difluorine monoxide?

F O
2

60

Calculate 2 moles of calcium sulphate

136 x 2 = 272g

61

How many moles are in 1292g of calcium sulphate?

1 mole = 136g
Number of moles = mass ➗ mass of one mole
= 1292 ➗ 136
= 9.5 moles

62

How many moles are in 24g of sulphuric acid?

m 24
n = ___ = ____ = 0.24 moles
fm 98

63

What is the concentration of 500ml of solution containing 1 mole of solute?

500 ➗ 1000 = 0.5
n 1
c = ___ = ___ = 2 mol/l
v 0.5

64

What is the number of moles in 5 litres of a solution with a concentration of 0.25 mol/l?

n = c x v = 0.25 x 5
= 1.25 moles

65

What is the volume of solution which could be made using 0.2 moles of solute in a solution of 1.5 mol/l concentration?

n 0.2
v = ___ = ____ = 0.13 litres
c 1.5

66

What does a metal plus an acid make?

Salt + Hydrogen

67

What does a metal oxide plus an acid make?

Salt + Water

68

What does a metal hydroxide plus an acid make?

Salt + Water

69

What does a metal carbonate plus an acid make?

Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

70

What is the formula for Hydrochloric acid?

HCl

71

What is the formula for Nitric acid?

HNO
3

72

What is the formula for Sulphuric acid?

H SO
2 4

73

What element is common to all acids?

+
Hydrogen Ion ( H )

74

What type of solutions are formed when metal oxides react with water?

Alkalis

75

What other types of compound dissolves in water to form an alkali?

Hydroxides

76

What ion do all alkalis have in common?

-
Hydroxide Ion (OH )

77

What kind of particles must be present in water to allow it to conduct electricity?

Ions

78

+
In water and neutral solutions, is the H concentration equal to/
greater than or less than the OH- concentration?

+ -
H concentration is equal to OH concentration

79

What is the effect of dilution on pH in water and neutral solution?

No effect. pH remains at 7

80

In acid solutions, is the H+ concentration greater than/equal to or less than the OH- concentration?

H+ concentration is greater than the OH- concentration.

81

What is the effect of dilution on pH in acid solutions?

pH moves towards 7. Concentration of H+ decreases

82

In alkali solutions, is the H+ concentration greater than/equal to or less than the OH- concentration?

H+ concentration is less than OH- concentration

83

What is the effect of dilution on pH in alkali solutions?

pH moves towards 7 (down). Concentration of OH- decreases

84

Write a word equation and a chemical equation for the neutralisation of magnesium with Hydrochloric acid

Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid ➡️ magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg + HCl ➡️ MgCl + H
2

85

Write a word equation and a chemical equation for the neutralisation of nitric acid with sodium hydroxide

Nitric acid + sodium hydroxide ➡️ sodium nitrate + water

HNO + NaOH ➡️ NaNO + H O
3 3 2

86

Write a word equation and a chemical equation for the neutralisation of copper oxide with sulphuric acid

Copper oxide + sulphuric acid ➡️ copper sulphate + water

CuO + H SO ➡️ CuSO + H O
2 4 4 2

87

Write a word equation and a chemical equation for the neutralisation of sulphuric acid with copper (ll) carbonate

Sulphuric acid + copper (ll) carbonate ➡️ copper (ll) sulphate + water + carbon dioxide

H SO + CuCO ➡️ CuSO + H O + CO
2 4 3 4 2 2

88

If 50cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution is neutralised by 25cm3 of sulphuric acid (concentration 2mol/l), what is the concentration of the alkali?

Cal x 50 2 x 25 25Cal = 50
________ = ______ Cal = 50 ➗ 25
2 1 = 2 mol/l

89

If 25cm3 of Hydrochloric acid is neutralised by 20cm3 of sodium hydroxide (concentration 2mol/l), what is the concentration of the acid?

Cac x 25 2 x 20 12.5Cac = 20
________ = _______ Cac = 20 ➗ 12.5
2 2 = 1.6 mol/l