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Flashcards in UNIT 1-9 Deck (239):
1

An increase in the current frequency of a behavior that is reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation

Evocative Effect

2

An alteration in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object or event as a result of a motivating operation

Value-Altering Effect

3

A decrease in the current frequency of a behavior that is reinforced by the stimulus that is decreased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation

Abative Effect

4

An alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation

Behavior Altering Effect

5

A motivating operation that establishes the effectiveness of a stimulus, object or event as a reinforcer

Establishing Operation

6

A motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus object or event

Abolishing Operation

7

A group of stimuli in which the frequency, duration, latency or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus

Stimulus Control

8

Motivating operations whose value altering effect does not come from a history of learning

Unconditioned Motivating Operations (UMO)

9

Motivating operations whose value altering effect depend on a learning history

Conditioned Motivating Operations (CMO)

10

An antecedent stimulus that evokes or abates a specific behavior, due to a past history of differential availability of reinforcement or punishment for that behavior that is dependent on their presence versus their absence

Discriminative Stimulus

11

An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a stimulus, object or event; and that alters the current frequency of behavior that is reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object or event

Motivating Operations

12

The basic process by which operant learning occurs

Operant Conditioning

13

Behavior is likely to occur under the current conditions

Evoke

14

Behavior is Not likely to occur under the current conditions

Abate

15

Reinforcing only responses within a specific response class that meet specific criterion along a dimension and placing all other responses in that class on extinction

Differential Reinforcement

16

When differential reinforcement consists of reinforcing some responses and not reinforcing other responses

Differentiation

17

When differential reinforcement consists of reinforcing a response when certain stimuli are present and not reinforcing the same response when those stimuli are not present

Discrimination

18

The tendency of behavior to occur more frequently in the presence of a particular stimulus because behavior has been reinforced only or mostly in the presence of that stimulus

Discriminative Control

19

An operant class that is established through the process of differential reinforcement with respect to the presence or absence of antecedent stimuli

Discriminated Operant

20

Discriminative Stimulus for reinforcement. Evokes behavior because in the past that behavior has been reinforced in its presence

SD for SR

21

Discriminative stimulus for extinction. Abates behavior because in the past that behavior has not been reinforced in its presence

S delta for SR

22

Discriminative stimulus for punishment. Abates behavior because in the past that behavior has been punished in its presence

SDP for SP

23

Discriminative stimulus for withholding punishment. Evokes behavior because in the past that behavior has not been punished in its presence

S delta P for withholding punishment (xSp)

24

Discriminative stimulus for positive reinforcement

SDR+

25

Discriminative stimulus for negative reinforcement

SDR-

26

Discriminative stimulus for extinction of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement

S delta R+

27

Discriminative stimulus for extinction of behavior maintained by negative reinforcement

S delta R-

28

Discriminative stimulus for positive punishment

SDP+

29

Discriminative stimulus for negative punishment

SDP-

30

Discriminative stimulus for unavailability of positive punishment

S delta P+

31

Discriminative stimulus for unavailability of negative punishment

S delta P-

32

A discrimination in which reinforcing a response is contingent on another stimulus

Conditional Discrimination

33

The tendency of a learned response to occur in the presence of a stimulus that was not present during training, but either shares some similar physical properties to the SD or has been associated with the SD

Stimulus Generalization

34

Organisms learn through the consequence of their actions

The Law of Effect

35

Edward Lee Thorndike

The Law of Effect

36

B.F. Skinner's Contributions (7)

The experimental analysis of behavior
The operant chamber
Radical behaviorism
Programmed instruction
Principles of operant conditioning
The cumulative recorder
Analysis of verbal behavior

37

Behavior that has an effect on the environment and is primarily under the control of its consequences

Operant Behavior

38

This process of behavioral variability; selection by consequences, and behavioral reproduction occurs throughout the organism’s lifetime

Operant Selection

39

Simplest Type of Operant Contingency

R-S (response-Stimulus)

40

An environmental change that follows a response and increases or maintains the future frequency of that behavior

Reinforcement

41

A stimulus change that follow a response and decreases the future frequency of that behavior under similar conditions

Punishment

42

An environmental change in which a stimulus is added (presented) or magnified following a response that increases or maintains the future frequency of that response

Positive Reinforcement

43

An environmental change in which a stimulus is removed (taken away) or attenuated following a response and increases the future frequency of that response

Negative Reinforcement

44

Unconditioned Positive Reinforcement

SR+

45

Conditioned Positive Reinforcement

Sr+

46

Unconditioned Negative Reinforcement

SR-

47

Conditioned Negative Reinforcement

Sr-

48

Unconditioned Positive Punishment

SP+

49

Conditioned Positive Punishment

Sp+

50

Unconditioned Negative Punishement

SP-

51

Conditioned Negative Punishment

Sp-

52

The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior

Extinction

53

Behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person’s awareness

Automaticity

54

If the opportunity to engage in a “preferred” or “high probability” behavior is made contingent on engaging in a “less preferred” behavior, the future duration or frequency of the “less preferred” behavior will increase

Premack Principle

55

A stimulus, that when presented following a response, increases or maintains the future frequency of that response

Reinforcer

56

A stimulus that, usually, is reinforcing without any prior learning; that is, its effect is due to phylogenic provenance

Unconditioned Reinforcer

57

A stimulus that initially has no innate reinforcing properties, but acquires reinforcing properties through pairing with unconditioned reinforcers or powerful conditioned reinforcers

Conditioned Reinforcer

58

A conditioned reinforcer that has been paired with a variety of reinforcers and which is effective for a wide range of behaviors

Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer

59

Behavior that terminates an aversive stimulus

Escape

60

Terminates a “warning” stimulus; prevents or delays the onset of the aversive stimulus

Avoidance

61

A conditioned aversive stimulus whose presence is correlated with the upcoming onset of an unconditioned aversive stimulus

Warning Stimulus

62

No clear warning stimulus, but a response can still delay or prevent the occurrence of the aversive event

Un-Signaled Avoidance

63

The response itself directly produces the reinforcing consequence. That is, the consequence is Not mediated by another person

Automatic Reinforcement

64

The consequence is mediated by another person

Socially Mediated Reinforcement

65

A person explicitly arranged the contingency

Planned Reinforcement

66

The contingency was not explicitly arranged

Unplanned Reinforcement

67

The process by which a previously reinforced behavior is weakened by withholding reinforcement

Operant Extinction

68

The sudden and temporary reappearance of a behavior following extinction

Operant Spontaneous Recovery

69

The reappearance of a previously extinguished behavior during the extinction of a more recently reinforced behavior

Resurgence

70

A stimulus, that is usually punishing without any prior learning; that is, its effect is due to phylogenic provenance

Unconditioned Punisher

71

A stimulus that initially has no innate punishing properties, but acquire punishing properties through pairing with unconditioned punishers or powerful conditioned punishers

Conditioned Punisher

72

An environmental change in which a stimulus is added (presented) or magnified following a response, that decreases the future frequency of that response

Positive Punishment

73

An environmental change in which a stimulus is subtracted (withdrawn or removed) or attenuated following a response, which decreases the future frequency of that behavior

Negative Punishment

74

A procedure based on the principle of negative punishment; the organism cannot access (generally specified) reinforcer

Time-out from Positive Reinforcement

75

The process by which a previously punished behavior is strengthened by withholding punishment

Recovery from Punishment

76

A simple relation between an antecedent stimulus and a reflex response

Reflex

77

To strongly, consistently and reliably evoke

Elicit

78

A simple relation between a specific stimulus and a specific innate, involuntary response

Unconditioned Reflex

79

Examples of Human Reflexes

Patellar reflex, Eye Blink reflex, Lachrymal reflex, Pupillary reflex, Respiratory reflex, Sneeze reflex, Cough reflex, Rooting reflex, Sucking reflex, Salivation reflex, Swallowing reflex, Peristalsis reflex, Reverse Peristalsis reflex, Reflex related to low/high temperatures, Reflex to loud sounds, Withdrawal reflex, Activation reflex

80

A stimulus which results in an unconditioned response without prior learning

Unconditioned Stimulus

81

A response which is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning

Unconditioned Response

82

A temporary reduction in a reflex response due to repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus

Habituation

83

A reduction in the frequency or magnitude of a response or a set of responses as a result of prolonged exposure to a stimulus or an environmental context

Adaptation

84

A temporary increase in some dimension or intensity of a reflex response due to repeated presentations of an eliciting stimulus

Potentiation

85

The tendency of a stimulus to elicit a reflex response following the elicitation of that response by a different stimulus

Sensitization

86

A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus is presented with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response

Respondent Conditioning

87

A simple relation between a specific conditioned stimulus and a conditioned involuntary response

Conditioned Reflex

88

A stimulus which has no eliciting effect on behavior prior to being paired contingently with an unconditioned stimulus or another conditioned stimulus

Neutral Stimulus

89

A stimulus which elicits a conditioned response due to prior learning; that is, due to ontogenic provenance

Conditioned Stimulus

90

A response which is elicited by a conditioned stimulus due to prior learning

Conditioned Response

91

The ONSET of the CS must come first, before the ONSET of the US. Very effective.

Short Delay Conditioning

92

The ONSET of the CS must come first, before the ONSET of the US. Usually effective

Long Delay Conditioning

93

The OFFSET of the CS must come before the ONSET of the US. Sometimes effective

Trace Conditioning Procedure

94

CS and US occur at the same time. Usually not effective

Simultaneous Conditioning Procedure

95

The ONSET of the US must come before the ONSET of the CS. Almost always ineffective

Backward Chaining Procedure

96

A neutral stimulus is paired with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) rather than with a US

Higher Order Conditioning

97

The process through which a conditioned reflex is weakened by discontinuing to pair the CS with the US

Respondent Extinction

98

The sudden reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned reflex

Respondent Spontaneous Recovery

99

The spread of effects of respondent conditioning to stimuli other than the conditioned stimulus

Respondent Stimulus Generalization

100

The effect of a stimulus on a specific response may be innate, due to the evolutionary history of that species

Phylogenic Provenance

101

The effect of the stimulus on a specific response may be learned, due to the experiential history of the individual organism in the environment

Ontogenic Provenance

102

A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world

Science

103

Goals of Science (4)

Description, prediction, control and development of technology

104

Empirical phenomena; Direct observation and measurement of phenomena or its permanent products

Natural Science

105

Physics, chemistry, biology, behavioral analysis

Types of Natural Science

106

Hypothetical constructs outside of the natural realm; indirect observation and measurement

Social Science

107

Psychology, sociology, political science

Types of Social Science

108

Philosophical Assumptions (of behavioral analysis) (x5)

Determinism, empiricism (experimentation and replication), parsimony, philosophical doubt, pragmatism

109

The universe is a lawful and orderly place

Determinism

110

Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of the phenomena of interest – behavior (experimentation and replication)

Empiricism

111

Systematic manipulation of an independent variable

Experimentation

112

Repeating any part of an experiment

Replication

113

Requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomena of interest be ruled out experimentally before more complex or abstract explanations are considered

Parsimony

114

Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact

Philosophical Doubt

115

Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application

Pragmatism

116

The philosophy or world view underlying behavior analysis. Posits that behavior is the subject matter of our science

Behaviorism

117

Causes of behavior; probabilistic

Determinants of Behavior

118

The process in which repeated cycles occur of variation, interaction with the environment, and differential replication as a function of the interaction

Selection

119

The environment selects which variations survive and are passed on

Natural Selection

120

Cultural practices evolve as they contribute to the success of the practicing group

Cultural Selection

121

The nearness of events in time

Temporal Contiguity

122

A dependency between events

Contingency

123

Types of Contingencies

S-S Contingencies (pairing)
R-S contingencies
S-R-S contingencies (3 term contingency)

124

Basic Operations of the Science of Behavior Analysis (6)

Direct observation
Repeated measures
Graph data
Manipulation
Systematic evaluation
Analysis and interpretation

125

Contingently present a stimulus immediately after the response

Consequential Operation (+)

126

Contingently remove a stimulus immediately after the response

Consequential Operation (-)

127

A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience

Learning

128

A natural science that studies functional relations between behavior and environmental events

Behavior Analysis

129

Everything that an organism does. The interaction of the muscles, glands, or other parts of a live organism with the environment

Behavior

130

Behavior that can be observed by others, even though special instrumentation may be required at times

Public Behavior

131

Behavior that cannot be observed by others; it is only accessible to the organism who is engaging in the private event

Private Behavior

132

A specific instance of behavior

Response

133

The beginning, the middle, and the end of a response

Response Cycle

134

Fundamental quality of a natural phenomena

Property

135

Fundamental Properties (x3)

Temporal Locus
Temporal Extent
Repeatability

136

A single response occurs in time

Temporal Locus

137

A response occupies time

Temporal Extent

138

A response can reoccur

Repeatability

139

A quantifiable aspect of a property

Dimensional Quantities

140

The amount of time between a stimulus and a response

Latency

141

The amount of time between the beginning and the end of the response cycle

Duration

142

The number of responses or number of cycles of the response class

Countability

143

The time between two successive responses

IRT

144

The ratio of the number of responses over some period of time

Rate

145

Change in one of the other dimensional quantities of behavior over time

Celeration

146

Configuration, form, or shape of a response

Topography

147

The effects or results of a response on the environment

Function

148

A grouping of individual actions or responses that share those commonalities included in the class definition

Response Class

149

A collection of two or more responses which share a common form

Topographical Response Class

150

A collection of two or more topographically different responses that all have the same effect on the environment, usually producing a specific class of reinforcers

Functional Response Class

151

The total constellation of stimuli and conditions which can affect behavior

Environment

152

Consists of the situation (set of circumstances) in which behavior occurs at any given time

Environmental Context

153

A change in the environment which can affect behavior

Stimulus

154

A stimulus which precedes, that is, occurs before a response

Antecedent

155

A stimulus which follows, that is, occurs after a response

Consequence

156

A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions

Stimulus Class

157

Changes in antecedent or consequent stimulus class consistently alter a dimension of a response class

Functional Relation

158

Covers various functions of stimuli; used to categorize stimuli that have multiple functions

Omnibus Terms

159

Its presentation evokes behavior that terminates it

Aversive Stimulus x1

160

Its onset weakens behavior that precedes its onset

Aversive Stimulus x2

161

Its offset strengthens behavior that precedes its offset

Aversive Stimulus x3

162

It may elicit smooth muscle and gland responses

Aversive Stimulus x4

163

Its onset strengthens behavior that precedes its onset

Appetitive Stimulus x1

164

Its offset weakens behavior that precedes its offset

Appetitive Stimulus x2

165

It abates behavior that removes it

Appetitive Stimulus x3

166

It may elicit smooth muscle and gland responses

Appetitive Stimulus x4

167

A sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as a conditioned reinforcement for that response and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the chain

Behavior Chain

168

A schedule of reinforcement in which the response requirements of two or more basic schedules must be met in a specific sequence before reinforcement is delivered

Chained Schedule

169

The spread of the effects of reinforcement to responses outside the limits of a operant class (another term response generalization)

Induction

170

The differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior

Shaping

171

The terminal target response is a distinct topography – a different response – than the response that is currently occurring

Shaping across Topographies

172

The terminal target response is similar in form to the initial response, but varies across some dimension, such as rate or duration

Shaping within Topographies

173

Parameters of Reinforcement (x3)

Magnitude
Quantity
Duration

174

The rule which describes or specifies which responses will be followed by reinforcement and which will not

Schedule of Reinforcement

175

Each and every single response that is emitted is reinforced; that is, reinforcement occurs each and every single time the behavior occurs; used to establish or strengthen behavior

Continuous Reinforcement

176

Some responses are reinforced and some are not; used to maintain already established behavior

Intermittent Reinforcement

177

Reinforcement is delivered after a certain number of responses

Ratio

178

Reinforcement is delivered for the FIRST responses after a certain amount of time since the previous reinforcement

Interval

179

The number of responses, or amount of time, remains the same

Fixed

180

The number of responses, or amount of time, is random, but centers around (i.e. averages out to) a particular value

Variable

181

A restriction placed on an interval schedule requiring that the response occur within a specified time limit following the interval to be eligible for reinforcement

Limited Hold

182

All or non schedules, as they produce a pause in responding immediately after reinforcement which is followed by a burst of responding. Pauses tend to be longer the thinner the schedule

FR Schedules

183

Produce steady and high rates of responding

VR Schedules

184

A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules

Ratio Strain

185

Scalloped; Produce a pause in responding immediately after reinforcement which is followed by a gradual increase in the rate of responding, with the highest rates at a time closest to reinforcement

FI Schedules

186

Produce steady, low to moderate rates of responding

VI Schedules

187

A preferred stimulus is delivered at a point in time without a response requirement

Time-based Schedules

188

Reinforcement occurs if and only if the rate of response is equal to or greater than a specified value

Differential Reinforcement of a High Rate of Responding (DRH)

189

The contingency for reinforcement is governed by the time elapsed between successive responses (as opposed to responses per unit of time)

Differential Reinforcement of Short Inter Response Times (DRH - IRT)

190

Consists of two or more schedules operating simultaneously but independently of each other, each for a different response

Concurrent Schedules (conc)

191

Consists of two or more alternating schedules, each associcated with a different stimulus

Multiple Schedules

192

The same as a multiple schedule except that there are no different stimuli associated with each component schedule

Mixed Schedules

193

A conditioned reinforcer is produced by completion of the response requirements for that component schedule in the chain

Chained Schedule

194

No discriminative stimuli in the links of the chain

Tandem schedules

195

A change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule

Behavioral Contrast

196

The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement

The Matching Law

197

The reinforcement schedule most resistant to EXT

VR (variable ratio)

198

The reinforcement schedule least resistant to EXT

FR (CRF) Continuous reinforcement

199

Operant behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons

Verbal Behavior

200

The individual emitting the verbal response

Speaker

201

The individual the speaker interacts with

Listener

202

Composed of listeners who belong to a trained verbal community

Audience

203

Elementary Verbal Operants

Tact
Mand
Duplic
Codic
Intraverbal

204

Under the antecedent control of a non-verbal stimulus

Tact

205

Under the antecedent control of an establishing operation

Mand

206

Under the antecedent control of verbal stimuli with point to point correspondence and with formal similarity to the response

Duplic

207

Types of Duplic

Echoics (vocal imitation, repeating)
Copying a text
Mimetics (motor imitation)

208

The repeating of a vocal behavior

Echoic

209

Has a point to point correspondence and formal similarity to the written verbal stimulus

Copying a text

210

The imitation of a physical movement that is also a non-vocal verbal unit

Mimetic

211

Under the antecedent control of verbal stimuli with point to point correspondence but without formal similarity

Codic

212

Under the antecedent control of verbal stimuli without point to point correspondence and no formal similarity

Intraverbal

213

Under the antecedent control of a mand to comply

Receptive Language

214

The speaker selects a stimulus in the environment by pointing or finding a picture and handing it to the listener

Selection-Based Verbal Behavior

215

The listener discriminates what the speaker is “saying” based on the topography of the verbal behavior

Topography-Based Verbal Behavior

216

An operant class that includes within it other classes that can themselves function as operants

Higher-Order Class

217

A higher-order operant response class that is under the control of verbal antecedent stimuli

Rule-Governed Behavior

218

Alter the evocative or abative effect of other antecedent stimuli

Function Altering Effects of Rules

219

Behavior acquired via immediate reinforcement contingencies

Contingency Shaped Behavior

220

Domains of Behavior Analysis x4

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Behavior Analysis Service Delivery
Conceptual Analysis of Behavior

221

The basic foundation for our conceptual analyses and permeates all the branches

Radical Behaviorism

222

Basic Research. Provides the scientific method for studying behavior by using cumulative records, manipulation of variables and automated recording

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

223

Applied research that applies the basic principles derived from EAB to solve problems of social significance

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

224

To help other persons to achieve their outcomes with the implementation of procedures validated by ABA researchers to make a difference in people’s lives

ABA Practice

225

Methodologies of EAB x4

Direct, repeated measurement of behavior
Rate of response as the basic datum
Visual inference (graphing)
Within subject comparisons

226

Seven Dimensions of ABA

Applied
Behavioral
Analytic
Technological
Conceptually Systematic
Effective
Generality

227

(Dimension of ABA) The implementation of basic principles to change behaviors of significance to clients

Applied

228

(Dimension of ABA) Directly observed and measured

Behavioral

229

(Dimension of ABA) Seeks to identify functional relations between manipulated environmental events and behavior through systematic and controlled manipulations

Analytic

230

(Dimension of ABA) Procedures are completely identified, and precisely described and defined

Technological

231

(Dimension of ABA) Procedures are linked to, and described in terms of the basic principles of behavior

Conceptually Systematic

232

(Dimension of ABA) An accountable discipline in which changes in procedure are data-based

Effective

233

(Dimension of ABA) Behavior changes achieved should maintain, transfer to other settings and situations, and spread to other behaviors

Generality

234

Deals with philosophical and theoretical issues

Conceptual Analysis

235

The set of assessments and behavior change procedures validated by ABA researchers

Behavioral Technology

236

Past and current behavior is explained as a function of environmental contingencies

Environmental Explanations

237

Mentalistic explanations; teleological explanations

Explanatory Fictions

238

These explain behavior by referring to hypothetical constructs from a dimension that is inferred to be inside the organism

Mentalistic Explanations

239

Summary Labels of behavior (such as traits, states, attitudes, diagnostic categories) and other hypothetical constructs are used to explain behavior

Mentalisms