Flashcards in Unit 1: The Weimar Republic Deck (54):
What was the nature of the government of the Second Reich?
Stood from 1871-1918 and was managed under Bismarck's Imperial Constitution (BRV). Bismarck with minister-president of Prussia, a member of the Junker elite and chancellor of Germany until 1892.
It had an outward appearance of democracy through its regular elections, universal male suffrage and Reichstag (397 men)/Bundesrat (35 reps). Yet in reality the BRV gave extensive powers to the chancellor and unelected Kaiser, with the Reichstag and Bundesrat holding limited powers.
Relatively conservative as 67% rural population in 1871. Ethnically homogeneous (92% German) but with some Sorbian, French, Danish and Polish minorities on national borders. 67% Protestant; 36% Catholic; 1% Jewish.
Why was democracy sought in 1918?
It was seen that it'd allow a more favourable peace treaty with the USA whilst shifting blame for war loss away from the Kaiser and his military high command.
It was also encouraged by the ZP, SPD and DDP.
Who led the 'Revolution from Above' and why was he chosen?
What were its successes and failures?
Prince Max von Baden. He was a pragmatic Liberal aristocrat who had good SPD links and who was determined to work democratically to limit the impact of WWI upon Germany. During WWI, he had opposed the decisions of the army leadership so worked with Russian POWs on the behalf of the Red Cross.
Managed to bring some stability through the October Reforms, which saw the removal of Erich von Ludendorff and shift of control over the army and ministers from the Kaiser to the government. Yet, were sceptical because measures were seen as inadequate and, for all the government's democratic airs, it still had a Kaiser. Failure came to head on 28th October 1918 (official government inauguration day) as the navy refused to follow Admiral Scheer's command in sailing against the British fleet.
Prince Max von Baden resigned with the Kaiser on 9th November 1918.
What government followed the Revolution from Above?
The Council of People's Representatives (3 SPD; 3 USPD). Friedrich Ebert was chancellor and Hugo Haase was chairman.
Ultimately failed because of disputes between the SPD and USPD. SPD wanted to leave all major decisions to the national constituent assembly that was to draw up the new constitution. USPD wanted to reform institutions like the army before working with them. USPD withdraw support on 28th December 1918.
What was the 'Revolution from Below'?
Began on 29th October 1918 as sailors in the ports of Kiel and Wilhelmshaven launched a mutiny in response to Admiral Scheer's orders the previous day, which had them believe that the government was using the navy to undermine the peace. Led to the establishment of workers' and soldiers' councils in cities. Ludwig III of Bavaria was forced to resign on 13th November 1913, allowing Kurt Eisner to establish a socialist republic.
What was the impact of the election of 19th January 1919?
President: Friedrich Ebert (SPD)
Chancellor: Philipp Scheidemann (SPD)
Explain the composition of the Weimarer Verfassung.
What was the longer name of Erster Hauptteil?
The Composition of the Reich and its Responsibilities
What was Section One of the Erster Hauptteil called and what did it outline?
What was the main significance of Section One - 'The Individual' of the Zweiter Hauptteil?
What were the key articles of Section 1 of the Zweiter Hauptteil?
What were some key policies of Section 2 - Community Life - of the Zweiter Hauptteil?
What did Section 3: Religion and Religious Communities of the Zweiter Hauptteil outline?
What did Section 5: The Economy of the Zweiter Hauptteil outline?
How was the Weimar Republic structured?
What was the ideology of the DNVP and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the DVP and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the DDP and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the ZP and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the SPD and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the USPD and who supported it?
What was the ideology of the KPD and who supported it?
What were problems with the structure of the Weimar Republic?
Why did people hold aversion towards democracy?
What was the significance of the legacy of Otto von Bismarck in undermining support for the FRG?
Explain the issue of popular militarism within the Weimar Republic.
Explain Dolchstoss ('stab in the back theory') and why it was significant.
Explain the issue of popular racism within the Weimar Republic in its many dimensions.
What political violence was seen in the Weimar Republic?
Why was the Treaty of Versailles a reason to oppose the Weimar Republic?
Military losses (TOV)
Economic losses (TOV)
Territorial losses (TOV)
Other losses (TOV)
Explain the issue of political fragmentation in the Weimar Republic and why it was significant.
What religious divisions existed in the Weimar Republic?
What ethnic divisions existed in the Weimar Republic?
How was Ebert important in overcoming challenges to the Weimar State?
How was Hindenburg important in overcoming challenges to the Weimar State?
How was Stresemann important in overcoming challenges to the Weimar State?
What was the importance of Article 48 and how extensively was it used within the Weimar Republic?
How important was the threat of the left in securing support for the Weimar Republic?
Which parties promoted democratic values for the better part of the 1920s?
How did nationalists present their opposition to the state in 1925?
How did the army present opposition to the Weimar Republic?
How important was Pope Pius XI in discouraging support for Weimar democracy?
How important was Hindenburg in ending the Weimar democracy?
How important was Brüning in ending the Weimar democracy?
To what extent did Nazi party popularity in elections grow, 1928-1932?
Why were the Nazis initially popular?
What was the nature of the NSDAP?
Why did the Führer appeal?
How important was violence in the Nazis' rise to power?