Flashcards in Unit 12 Deck (32):
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Social anxiety disorder
Intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such. (Formerly called social phobia.)
Fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide open places, where one has felt loss of control or panic.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
A disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after traumatic experience.
Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
Compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes.
A psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression.
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
False sensory experience, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Somatic symptom disorder
A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
A disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no psychological basis can be found. (Also called functional neurological symptom disorder.)
Illness anxiety disorder
A disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Formerly called hypochondriasis.)
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight.
An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), excessive exercise, or fasting.
Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa.
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.