Alternating episodes of depression and mania
An episode of BiPolar Disorder. Extreme enthusiasm, elation, over active, little need for sleep
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
A mood disorder characterized by depression that occurs at the same time every year
A behavior caused by an endured repeated painful stimuli that was unavoidable. This feeds depression
Sensations without stimuli. Hearing voices, seeing, smelling, tasting, and feelings things that are not actually there
Delusions of Persecution
Being paranoid that harm is occurring or will occur. Believes they are being persecuted
Delusions of Grandeur
A false belief that one possesses superior qualities such as genius, fame, omnipotence, or wealth.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Disorganized thinking, delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate emotions and actions like the flat affect and catatonia and disruptive social behavior
A theory that the unusual behavior and experiences associated with schizophrenia can be explained by changes in dopamine in the brain
Caused by long-term use if neuroleptic drugs. Causes involuntary movements, such as grimacing and eye blinking
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts(obsessions) and/or actions(compulsions)
Inability of a person to stop thinking about a particular topic or feeling a certain emotion without a high amount of anxiety.
Repetitive, rule-based behavior that a person feels they must perform in order to feel normal and in some cases to prevent negative consequences from happening.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
Social Phobias(social anxiety disorder)
-An intense fear of being scrutinized by other -Avoid potentially embarrassing social situations, such as speaking up, eating out, or going to parties
-Fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes -Given such fear, people may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus, or on an elevator
Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic(bodily) form without apparent physical cause
A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in a absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
An anxiety disorder in which person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of minds.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.
A rare disorder where someone loses their identity often in response to an overwhelming or stressful situation
The study of the origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavioral disorders or the manifestation of a mental or behavioral disorder.
Psychoanalytic Perspective: causes of abnormal behavior
The perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression.
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
A loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
A loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.
Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Criticism of the DSM
1. Normal problems are increasingly seen as pathology. -removal of MDD -lowering criteria for GAD -Removal of Asperger's as 2nd dx 2. Influence from pharmaceutical industry 3. Shift attention to people who could do well without while those who need help don't get it.
DSM-IV-TR to DSM-V diagnostic changes
1. The previous 5-axis system of diagnosis was eliminated Provides information about diagnoses, but does not offer specific guidelines about treatment 2. Moves towards a more dimensional (as opposed to categorical) approach --E.g. one Autism-Spectrum Disorder as opposed to the five separate categories found in the DSM-IV-TR 3. Organized to follow the lifespan (i.e. diagnoses at the beginning of the book typically manifest early in life) 4. Addition of Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder (this was invented to fix a mix diagnosis problem.) Resolve to stop the easy diagnosis Bi-polar no treatments purely diagnostic
5 version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders set to be published in 2013; includes changes to many diagnostic categories (e.g. personality disorders) and more emphasis on severity of symptoms in diagnosis
A class of mental disorders that involve long-term patterns and thoughts that are unhealthy, inflexible, and impairing to social relationships
Personality disorder types
Cluster A- odd or eccentric behavior is considered to be central. Ex: schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders Cluster B- dramatic and erratic emotional responses are common. Ex: borderline, antisocial, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders Cluster C- anxious and fearful behaviour are central Ex: avoidant, dependent and obsessive compulsive personality disorders.
Histrionic personality disorder
A disorder where a person seeks attention, talks dramatically with strong opinions, is easily influenced, has rapidly changing emotions, and thinks relationships are closer than they are.
Paranoid personality disorder
A mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust and suspicion of others. The person does not have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia.
Borderline personality disorder
a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive. This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood.
Narcissistic personality disorder
Symptoms include an excessive need for admiration, disregard for others' feelings, an inability to handle any criticism, and a sense of entitlement.
Antisocial personality disorder
The person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward family and friends. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Humanistic Perspective: Causes of Abnormal Behavior
Abnormal behavior is caused by conditions of worth that society puts on individuals, causing them to have poor self concept.
Sociocultural Perspective: Causes of Abnormal Behavior
A perspective of abnormal behavior that focuses on influences that other people, social institutions, and social forces exert on a person's mental health; Assumes that behavior is shaped by family, society, and culture.