Unit 12- Abnormal Behavior (7-9%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 12- Abnormal Behavior (7-9%) Deck (51):
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BiPolar Disorder

Alternating episodes of depression and mania

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Mania

An episode of BiPolar Disorder. Extreme enthusiasm, elation, over active, little need for sleep

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Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

A mood disorder characterized by depression that occurs at the same time every year

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Learned helplessness

A behavior caused by an endured repeated painful stimuli that was unavoidable. This feeds depression

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Hallucinations

Sensations without stimuli. Hearing voices, seeing, smelling, tasting, and feelings things that are not actually there

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Delusions of Persecution

Being paranoid that harm is occurring or will occur. Believes they are being persecuted

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Delusions of Grandeur

A false belief that one possesses superior qualities such as genius, fame, omnipotence, or wealth.

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Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Disorganized thinking, delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate emotions and actions like the flat affect and catatonia and disruptive social behavior

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Dopamine Hypothesis

A theory that the unusual behavior and experiences associated with schizophrenia can be explained by changes in dopamine in the brain

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Tardive Dyskinesia

Caused by long-term use if neuroleptic drugs. Causes involuntary movements, such as grimacing and eye blinking

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Panic disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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Obsessive-complusive disorder(OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts(obsessions) and/or actions(compulsions)

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Obsession

Inability of a person to stop thinking about a particular topic or feeling a certain emotion without a high amount of anxiety.

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Compulsion

Repetitive, rule-based behavior that a person feels they must perform in order to feel normal and in some cases to prevent negative consequences from happening.

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Phobias

An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

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Social Phobias(social anxiety disorder)

-An intense fear of being scrutinized by other -Avoid potentially embarrassing social situations, such as speaking up, eating out, or going to parties

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Agoraphobia

-Fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes -Given such fear, people may avoid being outside the home, in a crowd, on a bus, or on an elevator

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Somatoform disorder

Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic(bodily) form without apparent physical cause

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Hypochondriasis

A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

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Conversion disorder

A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found

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Mood disorder

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

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Major depressive disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in a absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

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Psychological disorder

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.

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Medical model

The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

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Anxiety disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

An anxiety disorder in which person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.

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Panic Disorders

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of minds.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

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Dissociative Identity Disorder

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.

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Fugue Disorder

A rare disorder where someone loses their identity often in response to an overwhelming or stressful situation

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Psychopathology

The study of the origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavioral disorders or the manifestation of a mental or behavioral disorder.

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Psychoanalytic Perspective: causes of abnormal behavior

The perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression.

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Psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

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Anxiety Disorder

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months

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Anterograde amnesia

A loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Retrograde amnesia

A loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

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Dissociative disorders

Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous thoughts, feelings, and memories.

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Criticism of the DSM

1. Normal problems are increasingly seen as pathology. -removal of MDD -lowering criteria for GAD -Removal of Asperger's as 2nd dx 2. Influence from pharmaceutical industry 3. Shift attention to people who could do well without while those who need help don't get it.

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DSM-IV-TR to DSM-V diagnostic changes

1. The previous 5-axis system of diagnosis was eliminated Provides information about diagnoses, but does not offer specific guidelines about treatment 2. Moves towards a more dimensional (as opposed to categorical) approach --E.g. one Autism-Spectrum Disorder as opposed to the five separate categories found in the DSM-IV-TR 3. Organized to follow the lifespan (i.e. diagnoses at the beginning of the book typically manifest early in life) 4. Addition of Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder (this was invented to fix a mix diagnosis problem.) Resolve to stop the easy diagnosis Bi-polar no treatments purely diagnostic

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DSM-V

5 version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders set to be published in 2013; includes changes to many diagnostic categories (e.g. personality disorders) and more emphasis on severity of symptoms in diagnosis

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Personality Disorders

A class of mental disorders that involve long-term patterns and thoughts that are unhealthy, inflexible, and impairing to social relationships

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Personality disorder types

Cluster A- odd or eccentric behavior is considered to be central. Ex: schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders Cluster B- dramatic and erratic emotional responses are common. Ex: borderline, antisocial, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders Cluster C- anxious and fearful behaviour are central Ex: avoidant, dependent and obsessive compulsive personality disorders.

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Histrionic personality disorder

A disorder where a person seeks attention, talks dramatically with strong opinions, is easily influenced, has rapidly changing emotions, and thinks relationships are closer than they are.

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Paranoid personality disorder

A mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust and suspicion of others. The person does not have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia.

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Borderline personality disorder

a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive. This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood.

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Narcissistic personality disorder

Symptoms include an excessive need for admiration, disregard for others' feelings, an inability to handle any criticism, and a sense of entitlement.

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Antisocial personality disorder

The person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward family and friends. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

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Humanistic Perspective: Causes of Abnormal Behavior

Abnormal behavior is caused by conditions of worth that society puts on individuals, causing them to have poor self concept.

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Sociocultural Perspective: Causes of Abnormal Behavior

A perspective of abnormal behavior that focuses on influences that other people, social institutions, and social forces exert on a person's mental health; Assumes that behavior is shaped by family, society, and culture.