Flashcards in Unit 13 Deck (37):
Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology.
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Unconditional positive regard
A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treats anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid.
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
Virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
A confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
Therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction.
Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.
Regression toward the mean
The tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and a client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem.
The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
Drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. (Several widely used antidepressant drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors-SSRIs.)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.