Unit 14- Social Psychology (8-10%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 14- Social Psychology (8-10%) Deck (44):
1

Mere Exposure Effect

familiarity breeding fondness

2

Central Route Persuasion

attitude change path in which interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

3

Peripheral Route Persuasion

Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker's attractiveness

4

Richard LaPiere

Attitudes affect actions

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Cognitive Dissonance

The tension we feel when our actions go against our attitudes so we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions

6

Leon Festinger

proposed the cognitive dissonance theory

7

Foot in the door phenomenon

Tendency for people who first complied with a smaller request to later comply with a larger one

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Door in the face phenomenon

Tendency for people to deny a large request right away

9

Attribution Theory

People usually attribute others’ behavior either to their internal dispositions or to their external situations

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Fundamental Attribution error

overestimating the influence of personality and underestimating the influence of situations

11

Harold Kelley

One of the pioneers of attribution theory

12

False-Consensus effect

Tendency of people to overestimate the level to which other people share their beliefs, attitudes, behaviors.

13

Self-serving bias

The common human tendency to attribute one's successes to personal characteristics, and one's failures to factors beyond one's control

14

Just-world phenomenon/bias

Idea that good is rewarded and evil is punished

15

Stereotypes

a thought that can be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things

16

Prejudice

unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group—often a different cultural, ethnic, or gender group

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Discrimination

Action(s) performed because of a prejudice

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Ethnocentrism

the belief that one's own group (ethnic, social, cultural) is the most important and superior to that of others.

19

Out-group homogeneity

one's perception of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members. "they are alike; we are diverse".

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Attitudes

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events

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In-Group Bias

The tendency to favor "our group" (the group we share a common identity with)

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Superordinate goals

Shared goals between two segregated groups that overrides their differences by creating a common goal

23

Frustration-aggression hypothesis

The principle that frustration creates anger and anger can lead to aggression

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Bystander Effect

The tendency for bystanders to be less likely to aid the victim when other bystanders are present

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Social Facilitation

An increase in performance of a well learned task in the presence of others

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Conformity

Adjusting ones thoughts and/or actions to coincide with the groups standards

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Solomon Asch's Conformity Study

Tested conformity by having a table of confederates with a subject near the end. Simple questions are given, but when the confederates before the subject answer incorrectly, the subject is inclined to conform and give the wrong answer as well.

28

Obedience

Compliance with an order, request, law, or an authority figure

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Stanley Milgram's Obedience Study

Tested obedience by making a scenario with a teacher (subject) and a leaner (confederate). The teacher had to deliver increasingly worse shocks to the leaner when the leaner got answers wrong. The learner tot them wrong by purpose and pretended to get shocked and eventually go unconscious. The experimenter encouraged the teacher to deliver the shocks and test the teachers obedience.

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Group Norms

Accepted behavior of a group and its members

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Social Loafing

When members of a group working together put in less effort due to distributed responsibility

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Group polarization

Opinions and views of group members are strengthened through discussion

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Groupthink

When group members censor their opinions or knowledge on a topic in favor of harmony within the group

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Deindividuation

The loss of self-awareness and control when in a group experiencing arousal

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Philip Zimbardo's Prison Study

Demonstrated that people put in toxic situations can become corrupt. Study had to be ended early because the situation deteriorated quickly.

36

Factors that contribute to Altruism

Empathy, social exchange theory, and social responsibility

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Factors that contribute to Aggression

Genetics, neural like the amygdola, biochemical

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Factors that contribute to Attraction

Proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity

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Social trap

When both sides oppose each other and pursue their purpose, but become caught in mutually destructive behavior

40

Reciprocity Norm

The expectation that people will help others that have helped them

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Social Responsibility Norm

The expectation that people will help those in dependent on them

42

Mirror-image perceptions

Mutual views held by opposing groups where one believes they are good (in group) and the others (out group) are evil

43

Self-fulfilling prophecy

A belief that leads to it's own fulfillment

44

Compliance

the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people (real or imagined) have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior; social influence is the driving force behind compliance.