Flashcards in Unit 2: Multiple Linear Regression Deck (23):

1

## What is the purpose of MLR?

### To predict a response variable (Y) using a set of predictor variables (X1, X2,...Xi)

2

## What is the method of MLR

### BLUE

3

## What are the assumptions for MLR?

###
LINE

Linearity: Y can be modeled as a linear function of the independent variables.

Independence: Observations are independent and of equal importance; predictors are linearly independent of each other (no multicollinearity)

Normality of errors: Errors are independent and normally-distributed with zero mean

and constant variance

E

4

##
How can we check if a linear relationship is appropriate?

###
1. Plot of the residuals against the fitted values (y)

2. Plot of the residuals against each predictor variable(xij)

5

## How can we check if the error assumptions are appropriate?

###
1. Plot of the residuals against the fitted values (y)

2. Plot of the residuals against each predictor variable (xij)

3. Histogram and/or normal probability plot of the residuals

4. Plot of the residuals against the index or order of data collection (to check independence)

6

##
What is the overall F-Test?

What does it mean when we reject the null of a n Overall F test?

###
Tests that the entire collection of independent variables are associated with the outcome.

Rejecting H0 indicates that the model with all predictors is better than an intercept-only model; further testing may be needed.

(H0: All Bj = 0

H1 : at least one Bj not equal to 0)

7

##
What is the partial T-Test?

What does it mean to reject the null of a partial t-test?

###
Tests that a specific independent variable is associated with the outcome, given the association with the other predictors has

already been accounted for

Rejecting H0 : j = 0 implies that there is signicant evidence of a

linear association between Xj and Y, given all other predictors are

already included in the model

8

##
What is the partial F-Test?

What are the hypotheses?

###
Tests that a specific collection of independent variables associated with the outcome, given the association with the other predictors has already been accounted for.

The reduced has to be a nested version of the full model.

Hypotheses:

H0: Reduced is better than the full

H1: Full model is the better model

Rejecting H0 indicates that the full model is better than the reduced model; further testing may be needed.

9

## How can you check for multicollinearity?

###
Checking for multicollinearity problems:

Plot predictor variables against each other

Look for large sample correlation coefficients

Look for large variance inflation factors (VIFs)

10

## How can we solve for the unconditional variance of Y using the ANOVA table?

### We can multiply the SST by n-1.

11

## Will SSM overlap for independent predictors?

### No! Independent predictors will not have overlapping SSMs.

12

## Can the Adjusted R2 be negative?

### YES! for really poor models where there are too many predictors, since it penalizes for number of predictors

13

## Type I SSM Characteristics

###
1. 'Sequential sums of squares'

2. Predictor-order matters

3. Sums to the overall SSM

4. Useful for conducting partial F-tests

14

## Type III SSM Characteristics

###
1. `Partial sums of squares'

2. Predictor-order does not matter

3. Does not sum to the SSM (unless predictors are independent)

4. Useful for computing partial correlations and partial R2

15

## When is a variable a confounder?

###
Variable Z is a confounder (`lurking variable') if it's inclusion changes the relationship between X and Y (e.g., Department

confounds the relationship between gender and admission rates

16

## When is there interaction/effect modifier?

###
`The relationship between X and Y depends on the values of Z.'

Interactions (`effect modiers') can be used to account for a relationship between Y and X that varies across the levels/values of Z

17

## Why center predictors?

###
Change the interpretation of B0: The average value of the response variable at the average

value of the predictors (i.e., y).

It helps to alleviate `variance inflation' issues associated with fitting models with higher-order polynomial terms, a special case of

multicollinearity.

18

## Why would you standardize your predictors?

###
The magnitude of coefficient estimates is comparable acrosspredictors

It puts all predictors `on an equal playing eld' when building a model

Similar to centering, it helps alleviate a special type of multicollinearity issue introduced when fitting models with higher-order polynomial terms

You should only standardize continuous predictors with roughly Normal distributions - do not standardize categorical predictors!

19

## Why is it a problem if the predictors are correlated?

###
There are typically large changes between the regression coefficients

in the unadjusted and adjusted models.

It is dicult to interpret the regression coefficients, because the

`holding all other predictors constant' statement is not reasonable.

The standard errors will be inflated, which causes problems with

inference (i.e., p-values are too big).

20

##
What is the Hierarchical Principle?

###
Higher-order terms should only be included if the corresponding 'main effects' are also included

Categorical variables should enter the model 'all or nothing'

21

## What are the implications of the hierarchical principal?

###
Avoid splitting up dummy variables representing categorical predictors

Only consider additional polynomial terms if the lower-order terms are already included

Only consider interactions between variables that are included in your model

22

## What is usually the result of using internal validation procedures?

### Using the same data to both train and validate your model will result in measures of model t that are too optimistic

23