Unit 2 Sociology of the Mass Media Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 Sociology of the Mass Media Deck (51)
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1
Q

What is mass popular culture?

A

Culture that reaches many people in a society. Mass media sources such as TV, newspapers, movies and social networking sites all reach large numbers of people.

2
Q

What is traditional/old media?

A

Mass media pre-digitalization e.g. newspapers, magazines, theatre, books.

3
Q

What is new media?

A

Mass media since digitalization that can be accessed through the internet. Social networking sites, satellite TV, websites, apps.

4
Q

What is the difference between broadsheets and tabloid newspapers?

A

Quality broadsheets focus on politics and current affairs, international news e.g. The Times, Telegraph. While mass-market tabloids focus on celebrity, entertainment and sport e.g. The Sun.

5
Q

What is interactivity?

A

Interactivity is the way the audience can take part in the mass media today e.g. by voting on talent shows, sending tweets or messages to discussions on TV shows, rating and reviewing films on websites. This can be used as evidence for the audience as active, not passive.

6
Q

What is convergence?

A

The way the mass media has ‘come together’ - different media can be accessed on the same device e.g. get news, radio, TV etc. all on an iPhone.

7
Q

What is digitalization?

A

Use of digital technology to allow the spread of mass media nationally and internationally. The internet has been a major element of this, free to access but not available for all in society.

8
Q

Why is internet access important for social equality? 3 reasons.

A
  1. For young people to complete h/w and access revision resources and help (e.g. Brainscape).
  2. For people to find jobs - many now advertised online and help and advice across many websites.
  3. For people to get involved in society e.g. through social networking sites.
9
Q

What does the hypodermic syringe approach say about the relationship between the mass media and the audience?

A

The audience passively accepts the message ‘injected’ into them by the mass media. This model believes that there is a DIRECT link between the violent behaviour shown on TV, computer games etc and anti-social and criminal behaviour in real life. Violent crimes are often explained in this way e.g. the James Bulger case and the film Child’s Play 3’

10
Q

What does the uses and gratifications approach say about the relationship between the mass media and the audience?

A

The audience is NOT passive because:

  1. Audiences can choose what to watch and what not to e.g. TV reality shows.
  2. Audiences use the media for their own purposes e.g. McQuail identified uses such as entertainment and finding information.
  3. Audiences are not effected by the media.
11
Q

What does the decoding approach say about the relationship between the mass media and the audience?

A

The content of the media can be decoded in many ways by different people. E.g. a worker involved in strike action will decode news bulletins about the strike differently from senior managers. The decoding approach sees the audience as ACTIVELY interpreting messages depending on who they are.

12
Q

What is semiology?

A

Semiology is a method of media analysis. It analyses the signs in the media and considers how they get across messages/meaning e.g. Stan Cohen’s study of how youths were presented in the press in the 1960’s.

13
Q

What is content analysis?

A

Content analysis involves researchers analysing qualitative material (e.g. magazines, TV, films) by quantifying it. Researchers do this by sorting out categories, then going through this material and systematically recording the number times each category appears.

14
Q

What are the issues with sociological analysis of the mass media such as semiology and content analysis?

A

Researchers can be biased themselves which affects validity. This can impact on how they view what they see in media - 2 researchers will see different things and reach different conclusions.

15
Q

What is hyppereality?

A

As consumers we can become so flooded by media that the distinction between the words/images and reality becomes blurred. We create own set of norms and values from global info around us - lifestyles chosen by selecting from the media, rather than being influenced by peers or family e.g. Friends TV show showing friendship households.

16
Q

How does the mass media act as an agent of socialization?

A

The mass media acts as an agent of socialization from as young as 3 when children start watching TV
One example of positive socialization is how children’s TV teaches equality and diversity as normal.
One controversial example of socialization is the way that the media only presents skinny models.
The media has greatest impact on teenagers because this is when the search for identity is strongest e.g. internet sites that provide help and support for transgender teens.

17
Q

What do Gauntlett and Gunter say about the impact of the mass media on gender identity?

A

Gauntlett (2008) pointed out that Iceland was still using the slogan “That’s why mums go to Iceland” in TV adverts suggesting that shopping is part of the women’s role reinforcing gender stereotypes of housewife/mother.
Gunter says the effect can be more gradual and subtle but builds up over time e.g. repeated adverts showing women washing up.

18
Q

What is political socialization?

A

How the agents of socialization help us form our views and opinions about politics e.g. our parents share their views which then influence us as they are role models.

19
Q

How can the mass media impact on political socialization? 3 ways.

A
  1. Negative stories about politicians can lead to people being disillusioned with politics
  2. The increase in websites and social networking can lead to Involvement in political activities.
  3. Information about political parties and their views e.g. through party political broadcasts can help people decide which way to vote
20
Q

What is a spin doctor?

A

Someone who works for political parties with the aim of creating a positive image which can involve manipulating/spinning the media by putting a positive view on a potentially unpopular or controversial news item or making more of favourable headlines (or ones damaging to other parties) in newspapers, or sound bites on TV/ radio.

21
Q

Which newspaper claimed to help the Conservative Party to win the 1992 election and how did they do this?

A

The Sun with damaging headlines about the Labour party run by Neil Kinnock to manipulate people into believing the UK would be in ruins if Labour won.

22
Q

What is the Conflict Approach?

A

Owners of newspapers e.g. Rupert Murdoch are powerful and rich, and control the output of the media to put across their own personal views and interests. Rupert Murdoch is accused of controlling the media getting rid of people and papers who do not agree with him e.g. fired editor of Sunday Times and sold a newspaper in China.

23
Q

How is the Conflict Approach linked to Marxism?

A

The Conflict approach says the owners/bourgeoisie are controlling the rest of society and keeping the working-class/proletariat down by only allowing their views and interests to be included, and making the underclass in society look bad.

24
Q

What is Pluralist Approach to press ownership and content?

A

‘Plurality’ means many and in this case a range of views in society. All of these are reflected in the media, no one view dominates - freedom of press. Newspapers like The Sun focuses on celebrity and entertainment stories or their readers would stop buying.

25
Q

How is the Pluralist Approach linked to Functionalism and Uses and Gratifications?

A

The Pluralist approach says the media plays the role/function of providing information and entertainment etc. for everyone in society.

26
Q

What is ‘agenda setting’?

A

The media deciding which subjects are appropriate for the news or for discussion e.g. by putting across the media on news apps, newspapers and discussion on TV and radio programmes.

27
Q

Who are ‘gatekeepers’?

A

A label for the editors and creators of media (e.g. journalists), as they are the people who decide which ideas/stories make it through to publication.

28
Q

What is ‘norm referencing’?

A

The way the media outlines acceptable boundaries of behaviour through presenting some groups positively (e.g. fire fighters) and others negatively as ‘folk devils’ (e.g. asylum seekers and teenage parents) and so shape public opinion.

29
Q

Why are advertisers important in the mass media?

A

Newspapers are businesses which need to make money and so ‘profit motive’ is important. E.g. The News of The World’ closed after the advertisers pulled out due to the phone hacking scandal.

30
Q

What is censorship?

A

Governments put rules and laws in place to prevent the media publishing certain content. Libel laws which prevent false accusations mean papers must be careful about what they publish or face court cases. Governments can try to control what is published during war times e.g. BBC accused of not showing support for Iraq war by government.

31
Q

What are the key features of a democracy? Name 4.

A
  1. Elections are held during which people can vote freely for whichever candidate they choose.
  2. Freedom of speech and expression is allowed.
  3. The legal system and police force are independent of the government.
  4. Organizations such as trade unions are free to meet.
32
Q

How does the internet help individuals in a democracy? 4 different ways.

A
  1. Increases access to political information.
  2. People can respond to news reports.
  3. Individuals concerned about issues e.g. global warming can use the internet to find people who share their concerns.
  4. If there is no obvious organisation people can set up their own.
33
Q

How does the internet help groups in a democracy? 2 different ways.

A
  1. Pressure groups such as animal rights organisations like PETA use the internet to publicize and attract new members.
  2. Protest and pressure groups can use the internet to help them organise campaigns e.g. the Countryside Alliance used email to contact people to organise a march in London.
34
Q

What evidence suggests there is little improvement in political participation despite the internet? 2 ideas.

A
  1. Little evidence that political activity has increased with the internet.
  2. Not everyone is helped, still people without access to the internet in the UK – this is called the ‘Digital Divide’.
35
Q

What is a moral panic?

A

A moral panic may be defined as an episode, often triggered by alarming media stories and reinforced by reactive laws and public policy, of exaggerated or
misdirected public concern, anxiety, fear, or anger over a perceived threat to social order e.g. tightening immigration laws.

36
Q

What are ‘folk devils’?

A

Folk devil is a person or group of people who are portrayed in the media as outsiders and deviant, and who are scapegoated/blamed for crimes or other sorts of social problems e.g. Muslims are all feared as potential extremists/terrorists.

37
Q

What is deviancy amplification?

A

To keep interest original deviance is made a bigger deal using exaggerated and sensationalized reporting e.g.. causes simplified for easy explanation such as links made between Islam and terrorism.

38
Q

What are ‘news values’?

A

What the media considers to be important and ‘newsworthy’ - what events, issues and personalities they think the audience will be interested e.g. celebrities.

39
Q

How were black people portrayed in TV shows and film between 1950’s and 1970’s?

A

Stereotyped in a negative way or in low status positions - often shown as criminals or only in entertainment or sports roles. No news readers or TV presenters.

40
Q

What change did Abercrombie (1996) see in the media during the 1990’s?

A

Abercrombie(1996) believes attitudes changed in the 1990’s when black actors played normal roles in soaps such as the Cosby show. These programmes portrayed black people more successfully in higher status jobs e.g. doctor.

41
Q

What negative stereotypes have there been in last 20 years about the Asian community?

A

Young Asians (especially men) have been demonized as the underclass, extremist and likely to be terrorists. Young Asian women have been portrayed as victims of arranged and forced marriages.

42
Q

How does the film ‘Bend it Like Beckham’ show a more realistic picture of Asian life in the UK today?

A

Challenged stereotypes about women and Asian women whilst looking at Asian families, to show us a picture of modern Asian families in the 1990’s. It showed strong women in a variety of roles, with the cultural clashes that are true of living as a modern Asian in UK today.

43
Q

What did sociological research into images of gender find in the 1970’s?

A

Mass media representations of women tended to be stereotypical rather than realistic - as did not reflect range of roles women played in society.

44
Q

What did Cumberbatch find when he researched advertising in the 1990’s? 5 points.

A
  1. Nearly 2/3 people in ads were men.
  2. Vast majority of voice overs in ads were men.
  3. Women in ads were more likely than men to be young and blond.
  4. Men more likely to be shown in a work setting than women.
  5. Women frequently shown with male partner.
45
Q

What are the issues with the way women’s sport in presented in the media?

A

Women are often invisible in sports press - coverage of women’s football, rugby and cricket are patchy at best. Women’s tennis is shown but it is often done in a way that makes it seem worth less than men’s tennis, focusing on their beauty rather than tennis skills.

46
Q

What did Gauntlett find about how ‘masculinity’ was presented in men’s magazines? 4 ideas.

A
  1. Men like to look at women.
  2. Men like cars, gadgets and sport.
  3. Men need help e.g. with fashion and grooming.
  4. Men are fascinated by bravery and danger.
47
Q

What evidence is there of a more realistic picture of women in the media?

A
  1. Number of films show women in strong lead roles e.g. Hunger Games.
  2. There are increasing numbers of women in top TV presenting roles e.g. Strictly Come Dancing and news presenting.
48
Q

What are the effects of gender stereotyping?

A

One view is that if we are exposed often enough over many years to these stereotypes, we will come to ‘internalise’ them, to accept them as true. A boy exposed to these stereotypes may grow up believing them, and may one day be in a job where he can discriminate against women. A girl may grow up believing that men only find certain kinds of women attractive. To find her ideal mate (which the media have told her she should do) she should slavishly imitate (copy) a particular image of women; for example, she might pretend to be less clever than she is.

49
Q

What are 3 key areas of public concern about media exposure to violence?

A
  1. Television zombies - TV is an ‘evil’ that dulls the minds of creative and lively young children.
  2. Desensitisation - Children don’t experience the shock and horror of violence they should because they have seen so much.
  3. Copy cat violence - Children imitate what they see on TV and film – are excited or seduced by what they see and re-enact them in real life.
50
Q

What has the government done to try to deal with public concern about the ill-effects of the internet?

A

Internet service providers (ISPS) must install parental controls on computers and allow option to turn on.
Parents given guidance on the benefits of controls to restrict access to unsuitable content. Schools given ability to restrict content too.
.

51
Q

Why are governments efforts to control digital media not always successful? 3 reasons.

A
  1. Children access media through phones and these do not have parental controls on. 2. Not all parents choose to use the controls (trusting their children).
  2. Children can go round to houses of others to watch.