Unit 2 (terms and DCs) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 (terms and DCs) Deck (48):
1

beta blockers

help with the physical symptoms of social anxiety disorder- not habit forming

2

SSRIs

-help 80% panic disorder patients
-long term treatment
-after few years, 25% find it no longer alleviates symptoms of depression
-6 mo to year of taking it for best results
-hardest to overdose and fewest side effects (side effects come after discontinuation)= most commonly prescribed
-(can trigger manic episode if given to BP patient)

3

ERP

exposure to stressor, discussion on tactic to handle it= best for OCD

4

localized amnesia

complete amnesia for a specific period of time (trauma)

5

selective amnesia

partial loss of memory during a specific period of time

6

generalized amnesia

begins with particular event and extends back in time
-wandering

7

arousal and fear paths

sympathetic NS
hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal pathway

8

major depressive episode

2 weeks for diagnosis
-40% who've had DE with exp another episode in life

9

manic episode

1 week or hospitalization

10

hypomanic episode

4 days

11

MDD

-18% lifetime prev
-85% symptom free within year (w/o therapy)
-2x risk if 1st degree relative has one
monoamine= depletion in Its causes MDD
**depressive episode must last 2 weeks for diagnosis

12

PDD

depressive episode must last 2 years, fewer symptoms
-1/10 develop MDD

13

BP I

1 week or hospital for diagnosis

14

BP II

4 days of elevated mood WITH depressive crash for diagnosis

15

Lewisohn's behavioral therapy

most effective for helping mild MDD if coupled with 2 other techniques

16

MAOIs

help 50% of people with depression, but lead to dietary restrictions due to increase in BP

17

tricyclic ADs

dry mouth and constipation, but help 60% with depression and no BP increase

18

psychotherapy as MDD treatment

-prevents relapse
-cope with life events and stressors
-50% see improvement

19

6 components of TLC

-exercise
-sleep
-sunlight
-omega-3
-social interaction
-decrease negative thinking
*70% people saw 1/2 reduction of depressive symptoms

20

lithium

helps 60% patients with BP
-most commonly prescribed
(anticonvulsants and anti psychs also used)
***lamictal (anticonvulsant)= best for bipolar depression**

21

anticonvulsants

calm hyperactivity (best for depressive) and helps rapid cycling; increased suicide risk

22

BP and suicide

most common to attempt during changing moods- mania to depression

23

permissive theory

serotonin opens gate for mood disorder, NE determines the type
-low 5HT + high NE = mania
-low 5HT + low NE = depression

24

phobias

-fear/ anxiety of object, with immediate anxiety response and extreme avoidance; fear is disproportionate to the danger; must cause distress/ dysfunction; MUST have symptoms for more than 6 months
-common= animal, nature, situation, medical
-9% lifetime prev; 2:1 women:men
-exposure therapy, systematic desens; best= actual contact with the fear and fear hierarchy

25

social anxiety disorder

anxiety of being watched and negatively judged by others
-avoidance and distress in social situations
-performance and generalized types
-12% lifetime prevalence
-teenage onset
-therapy= cognitive (reframing) and SSRIs and beta blockers

26

panic disorder

-recurrent and persistent panic attacks; apprehensive for over one month; OR avoidance behaviors - rule out drug use
-unpredictable attacks (unexpected PAs); 83% are comorbid for another anxiety disorder
-3-4% pop
-increased activity in fear network (amygdala) and heightened startle response; GABA is also lower
-SSRIs (increase 5HT and decrease NE)= improve 80%
-CBT to break misinterpretation pattern

27

agoraphobia

fear of public places where escape is difficult; must have symptoms for at least 6 months
-behavioral therapy, family therapy, anti anxiety meds and psychotherapy help

28

GAD

-unreasonable anxiety in most situations; "anxious apprehension; hard to control; physical symptoms (3+); distress and dysfunction; symptoms must last over 6 months (not due to drugs)
-6% lifetime prev
-women: men 2:1
ellis's rational emotive therapy (RET)
-SSRIs and SNRIs
-break down worrying with psychoeducation

29

OCD

causes great distress or takes up over one hour per day
-only need obsession OR compulsion for diagnosis
-increased basal ganglia activity and abnormal 5HT
-3% lifetime prev; equal women: men
-40% seek treatment
-ERP= best 55-85% find help in ERP (not helpful for those with ONLY obsessions)
-SSRIs and Anafrinil (tricyclic) also help

30

benzodiazepines

agonist for GABA; addictive; tolerance, drowsiness

31

adjustment disorder

psych response to STRESSOR within 3 months of exposure; significant symptoms of distress and dysfunction - not from trauma
-can be chronic or acute, recurrent or continuous
-symptoms aren't explained by another disorder and disappear when stressor is alleviated
-5-20% pop
-therapy aimed at increasing coping ability

32

acute stress disorder

symptoms begin within 4 weeks of trauma and last 3-30 days - allows diagnosis to be made without waiting 30 days for ptsd
-80% cases develop into PTSD

33

ptsd

symptoms begin after trauma (usually within 3 months) and persist over 1 month; reoccurring trauma, avoidance of trauma linked stimuli; changes in arousal and reaction
*event must be experienced personally (not media)
-hyperarousal/ vigilance
types= disasters (10x more common than combat), combat, sex abuse, terrorism and torture
-3.5% US/yr... 7-9% life prev
women: men = 2:1
-2/3 seek treatment
-1/2 PTSD resolve in 6 months; goal of treatment= decrease stress reactions, SSRIs= only approved- 60% effective
-CBT= best (uncovering= reliving in safe environment; covering= supportive therapy and stress management

34

DID

2+ distinct personalities; lapses in memory; not due to drug
-1% prev; 70% attempt suicide; therapy seeks to reintegrate personalitites

35

depersonalization/ derealization disorder

persistent and recurrent depersonalization OR derealization or both; the person is in touch with reality
risk factor= abuse; emotional neglect
-50% people experience dreal at some point; recurrence= rare; comes on suddenly and is long lasting
-antidepressants and psychotherapy

36

dissociative amnesia

psychological cause; no recall of episodic memory; distress/ dysfunction
localized= most common, loss of all. memories in selective period
selective= loss of some memories during a select period
generalized= begins with event and extends backwards in time, confusion and wandering
-2% prev/ yr
-often recover on own (memory triggers)

37

dissociative amnesia with fugue

unexpected travel; unaware that they don't know who they are; confusion of ID; may last days to years; people appear normal to crowd; no drugs

38

major depressive episode

time limited period in which intense symptoms are present
need 5 symptoms in 2 week with symptoms nearly every day
-appetite/ weight change
-sleep loss
-guilt
-agitation
-fatigue
-suicidal thoughts

39

manic episode

persistently elevated mood and increased activity for over one week or hospitatlization; AND increase self esteem/ grandiose, or decrease sleep, racing thoughts etc...

40

hypomanic episode

4 days for diagnosis; not as severe as manic; very functional

41

MDD

have had DE; never had ME or HME
-2x risk for 1st relatives
-18% life prev; women>men; highest prev among 18-25 yos; leading cause of disability in the world (WHO)
-85% with MDD will be symptom free within year even without treatment
monoamine hypothesis= depression caused by depletion in Its; 5HT, NE, DA
-cortisol (depressed 50%, have more cortisol
-melotonin= low in MDD, high in SAD

42

cognitive Beck view of MDD

-maladapt attitudes
-cognitive triad (neg views of world, self and future)
-errors in thinking (arbitrary inferences, minimization, magnification)
-automatic thoughts (steady stream of neg thoughts)

43

PDD (dysthymia)

milder than MDD= fewer symptoms
-distress and long lasting- must be depressed for 2 years for diagnosis ( 1 year for <18 yo)
-no HME or ME
-1/10 develop MDD; early and gradual onset

44

premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMDD

mood symptoms 7 days before period- significant low mood; severe enough for distress/ dysfunction
3-8% women in menstrating years
-SSRI antidepressants; birth control; Ca pills; exercise; sleep; decrease caffeine

45

bipolar I

-1+ manic episode at some point; may or may not be followed by DE or HME; distress and dysfunction
-rapid cycling= 4+ mood episodes in one year
-worsens without treatment; usually YA onset; 2-4% life prevalence; 1/3 will attempt suicide (15% complete without treatment)
-Lithium; anticonvulsants (rapid cycle and physical)
-60% ME followed by DE
-lithium decreases DA and decreases manic behavior

46

BP II

1+ DE; at least 1 HME; NO ME at all
-overactive NE; low 5HT

47

permissive theory

low 5HT opens door for mood disorder; NE level determine the type
-high NE= mania; low= DE

48

cyclothymic

at least 2 years of numerous SYMPTOMS (no full on episodes) of mild depression and hypomania; chronic mood flux; not symptoms free for over 2 months; may develop into BP I or II; overactive NE;
1% pop; sleeping loss may trigger mania