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Flashcards in Unit 3 Deck (48):
1

proportion of people who are overweight/obese compared to those underfed/underweight

the number of people who are overweight is greater than the number of people who are underfed/underweight

2

age related to risk for obesity

age increases risk for obesity
over 25 year span, an continuous increase can be seen in obesity rates

3

differences in obesity in males and females

not much difference

4

amount of overweight children

in the past 30 years, we have seen an increase in both overweight and obese children.
- there is a much larger increase in obese children than overweight children
- 30% of the population of children are overweight and this is causing T2D and atherosclerosis to start really young

5

world prevalence of obesity

- US is by far the most obese nation
- japan has the lowest obesity rates and also has some of the highest life expectancies
- in Canada, there is a big difference between self report and measured data for obesity (people overestimate their height by 1 inch and underestimate their weight)

6

what percent of premature deaths are associated with obesity

10%

7

what is the leading cause of preventable death (after smoking) in N. America

obesity

8

what proportion of the adult population in Canada is obese?

2/3 of adults
canada is ranked #5 worldwide

9

osteoarthritis related to obesity

breakdown of cartilage b/w joints from extra weight on your joints
- the extra weight is bad for your joints because they have poor blood supply and so can't rebuild themselves as easily as bones can

10

who has increased risk for adult obesity

- women more than men, blacks, hispanics and native americans
- family history (genetic or env'tal influence)
- having childhood obesity
- lower socioeconomic status
- sedentary lifestyle
- increased screen time

11

methods to determine percent body fat

- underwater weighing
- DXA scanning
- bioelectrical impedence
- skinfold calipers
- BMI

12

underwater weighing

measures body density
- a person w more fat would weigh less underwater because fat makes people float
- the difference b/w weight under water and on land can be used to calculate percent body fat

13

DXA scanning

fat vs fat free mass measure
- gold standard

14

bioelectrical impedence

current moves through body more quickly when you have lean mass rather than fat
- influenced by how hydrated you are

15

skinfold calipers

measure subcutaneous fat on different body tissues
- challenging to do accurately
- hydration plays a role

16

BMI

does not give percent body fat, but gives indication of what it might be
= weight (kg)/ [height (m)]^2
- being overweight puts someone at risk
- also being Underweight puts someone at risk for other comorbidities

17

normal BMI

18.5-24.9
anything above is overweight

18

pre-obese BMI

25-29.9

19

obesity class 1 BMI

30-34.9

20

obesity class 2 BMI

35-39.9

21

obesity class 3 BMI

>40
have very severe risk of co morbidities

22

relationship b/w BMI and percent body fat in men and women

don't go up in linear fashion so don't correlate perfectly
"aren't directly correlated"
- similar curve seen for both men and women

23

problems with BMI

- misleading for people with different body types (ex. endomorph, ectomorph, mesomorph)
- doesn't reflect body fat distribution (visceral vs subcutaneous)
- abdominal obesity can't be estimated w BMI but it;s most correlated with increased risk
- misleading in older population with changing body composition

24

endomorph

overweight with extra fat mass

25

ectomorph

underweight with less fat mass

26

mesomorph

someone with lots of skeletal muscle
- throws off risk if measuring only by BMI because muscle weighs more than fat

27

relationship b/w BMI and mortality risk is dependant on what?

age

28

age as a factor b/w BMI and mortality risk

when BMI increases, the lowest mortality for older person is better to have extra body mass because otherwise it results in being extra frail

29

waist circumference (WC)

better reflects amount of fat we carry on our abdominal wall
- with BMI is more sufficient at determining risk than waist hip ratio

30

ideal waist circumference values for men and women

men: <102cm
women: <88cm
- generally the lower the better

31

ideal waist-hip ration (W:H) for men and women

men:

32

apple vs pear body shape

apple - android orientation
pear - gynoid orientation
- partially why men are at greater risk than women because they have less variation in body shapes

33

BMI and CVD mortality

BMI >25 increases risk. there's also increased risk when you are lean

34

BMI and type 2 diabetes risk

BMI >25 increases risk
- more rapid rise seen with a BMI risk >30

35

WC and BMI effect

cumulative effect seen when both increase
- stronger correlation seen here for diabetes development also

36

conditions resulting from obesity

CHD
diabetes
arthritis
hypertension - also increases stroke risk

37

metabolic syndrome

aka metabolic syndrome X
- puts you at even greater risk for CVD
about 20% of the population has this
when you have 3 or more of the following conditions:
- abdominal obesity
- high fasting plasma glucose
- high blood TG
- hypertension

38

metabolic syndrom impact on mortality and CV health
BMI and waist size on metabolic syndrome

mortality: increases slightly
CVD: increases risk dramatically
BMI: >30 poses the greatest risk

39

is being overweight/obese an independent risk factor for diabetes and CVD?

- correlations are strong but causation isn't necessarily there
- obesity is linked with other risk factors so the impact of being overweight can be MODIFIED by PA

40

fitness vs fatness

most people who are overweight are not fit
- regardless of BMI category, fitness decreases risk of CVD mortality, obesity still increases risk but compared to lean unfit people, it's better to be fat and fit

41

current approaches to weight loss

- low calorie, low fat diet
- behaviour therapy
- drug therapy: ex sibutramine
- surgery (gastric bypass)
- PA: not alone

42

yoyo diet

starvation diet where you lose weight rapidly and gain it back
- you lose lean mass then gain back fat
- strains CV system because body can't process changes fast enough
- when you lose fat, drugs and viruses that get trapped in it get released and strains your immune system

43

primary vs. secondary prevention

primary: trying to prevent the disease itself
secondary: preventing the disease from getting worse or leading to other clinical manifestations

44

obesity prevention trends in children

not really a trend - no matter how much PA kids do, it doesn't appear to link to obesity
- obesity is positively correlated to hours of sedentary time

45

PA and its role on weight loss

- its hard to lose weight and gain muscle mass at the same time bc they use different metabolic pathways
- when in negative caloric balance, need to do resistance exercise to prevent loss of lean mass
- maintains weight lost
- improves CV and metabolic health independent of weight loss

46

how to get kids to be less obese

tell them to be less sedentary than to be more active
- about 7 hour reduction in screen time/week is significant enough to drop BMI

47

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the amount of energy the body needs at rest

48

how does PA help you lose body fat?

- increases energy expenditure
- helps maintain BMR
- possibly suppresses appetite right after exercise
- HIT training - it takes the body longer to