Unit 3: AOS 2 SAC 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: AOS 2 SAC 2 Deck (44):

What is training?

the process of teaching staff to perform their job more productively. It is providing people with the knowledge and skills they need to do a job


What is development?

the process designed to build the skills necessary for the future, work activities and responsibilities.


Benefits of Training for the Employee and Business

- Opportunity to gain or grow skill set
- Opportunity for promotions + self improvement
- Improved job satisfaction
- A challenge → opportunity to learn new things
- Adaptability

- Higher productivity through better job performance
- Goals and objectives are easily met
- Reduced costs → reduced absenteeism, less staff turnover/ less accidents
- Capable workforce


3 Levels of Analysis/ Different types of Training

→ Organisational Analysis
The entire business is analyzed to decide what training activities are needed to best achieve the strategic objective
→ Task Analysis
The individual job and task required to perform that job are analysed to determine whether any specific skills are required for a successful performance
→ Personal Analysis
Each employee is assessed to determine what kind of training is required
This helps establish training and development objectives


Performance Appraisals can help determine individual needs

- Basic skills
- Awareness of legislation, diversity etc.
- Technical/ job specific skills
- Interpersonal/ Communication skills
- Conceptual skills


On the job training

- On site training with the employee performing the actual tasks (hands on)
- Coaching, tutoring, mentoring by a supervisor/ colleague
- Involvement in planned work activities, special projects and committees
- Job rotation in or between departments
Ie. Retail (how to fold clothes, unpack things, cash policies), Builders, Nursing


Advantages and Disadvantages of On the job training

- Training is tailored to meet specific needs of the business.
- Cost effective as they don't have to pay for an outsider
- Employee is being trained with the specific
tools or equipment they will be using in their

- Trainer may pass on bad habits to the trainee
- Training may be substandard if mentor/coach is not trained in how to act in this role.
- External trainermay be completely unfamiliar with the equipment and working practices at that business.


Off the job training

- When employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained
- Information presentation style - lectures, written and visual format
- Simulations- visual games and case studies
- Role plays


Advantages and Disadvantages of off the job training

- A wider range of skills can be taught/learned.
- Learning from specialists and experts.
- Less opportunity to be interrupted by
workplace issues – therefore able to focus on the course/training program.

- More expensive if paying course fees, transport and possibly accommodation.
- Lost working time and potential output from employees while on training course.
- Employees with these new skills/qualifications may leave the business to gain a job elsewhere, possibly for higher pay.


Performance Management

Performance Management: is about improving business objectives and individual performance by relating business performance objectives to individual employee performance objectives
Helps a business make decisions about employees performance, remunerations, promotions, transfers discipline procedures, training and development need and terminations


Performance Appraisals

A performance appraisal is the formal assessment of how efficient and effective an employee is performing in their role in the business


5 main Objectives of Performance Appraisals

1. Provides feedback from management to employees regarding work performance
2. Acts as a measurement to help determine if an employee requires a pay rise or promotion
3. Helps monitor employee selection
4. Identifies employees training and development needs
5. Identify new objectives and put in place a plan for future performance


Methods of Performance Appraisal

- Essay method
- Critical incident method
- Comparison method


Management by Objectives

- Process where management employees agree on a set of goals for each employee, when the individual goals contribute to the goals of the business as a whole
The process includes: Measuring progress to achieve the goals, Performance appraisals once the goals have been achieved


Employee Self Evaluation

Involves employees carrying out a process of self assessment based on an agreed set criteria. It looks at the employees career aspirations for the future as well


Employee Obervation

The aim is to get feedback from a variety of different parties to arrive at a picture of a past and current performance


360 Degree Feedback

- Evaluates the performance of managers and supervisors, by getting input from their subordinates, fellow supervisors and superiors
- About 8-12 employees complete confidential evaluation forms and the employee under review also completes self evaluation
- Helps identify strengths and weaknesses and gives a broad overview of the employees performance
- Focus on how the employee works as part of the team
- Helps to evaluate leadership, teamwork and interpersonal skills


Termination of Employment

- The final stage of the Employment cycle and the ending of employment in that business for the employee
- When workers leave the workplace on a voluntary or involuntary basis
- Sensitive stage and needs to be handled well by the Human Resources Managers, make sure employee is treated fairly and is within the law


Voluntary Termination

--> The employees chooses what they plan to do when it comes to employment
1. Retirement
Employee decides to give up full time or part time work and is no longer part of the labor force
2. Resignation
Voluntary ending of employment by the employee quitting their job
Individuals may resign due to: a promotion in another business, to start their own business, look for other challenges, a change of lifestyle


Involuntary Termination

When the organisation decides to terminate your employment
1. Redundancy
Occurs when a person's job no longer exists, usually due to tech changes, a business restructure or merger and acquisition. If the employee cannot be trained for another job, he/she will be made redundant
--> Voluntary Redundancy
Occurs when the business wants to reduce the size and/or nature of the workforce
Employees are informed of the change, and they can nominate themselves for a redundancy
--> Involuntary Redundancy
Happens when you get asked to leave the business against his/her will
2. Retrenchment
Is when an employee loses their job due to a lack of sufficient work to keep them.
3. Dismissal
- When an employee's behaviour is unacceptable they can be dismissed
--> Summary dismissal: the most serious form of dismissal is when an employee commits a serious breach of an employment contract
--> Dismissal on notice: when the employee is not performing the job satisfactorily- this may be identified during an appraisal


HR Procedures in relation to Redundancy and Retrenchment

- Providing the correct information to employees
- Consultation process
- Time off to look for new work
- Redundancy/ severance pay
- Possibly accrued annual and sick leave
- May consider retraining employees


Positives and Negatives of Involuntary Termination

- Culling of non-productive employees
- Reduction in costs; e.g. wages and overheads
- Change in structure of the business Removing employee undertaking serious
misconduct at the workplace

- Loss of talent
- Decline in morale
- Breakdown of effective teams
- Increased pressure on performance of
remaining staff


Unfair Dismissal

- When an employee is dismissed because the employer has been discriminated against them in some way
- Fair Work Act 2000 provides a provision to protect employees from unfair dismissal

Things that you cannot be dismissed for:
- Adsense from work due to illness/ injury
- Belonging or not belonging to a union
- Race, colour, sexual preference, nationality, religion, pregnancy, family responsibility


Fair Work Commission

Is Australia's national workplace tribunal
Its role:
- to assist employees to maintain fair and productive workplace
- independent body that operates under the Fair Work Act 2000


In a case the FWC must consider

- Was there a valid reason for the dismissal of the employee relating to capacity or conduct
- Was the employee given notice of the reason and given an opportunity to respond
- Was there any reasonable refusal by the employer to allow the employee to have a support person present to assist in any discussions relating to the dismissal
- If the dismissal relates to poor performance has the employee been warned about that performance


How the FWC process works

- HR Manager Employer, Conciliator/Arbitrator, Terminated Employee with Support Person
- The FWC will try to conciliate on the matter by helping both sides resolve the matter on mutual agreement --> If a resolution can't be held an arbitration hearing is required
- If the dismissal is deemed to be unfair- the FWC can order the employer to reinstate the employee or compensate them for up to 26 weeks pay ( to a maximum of 68,350)


Entitlements of terminated employees

- Remuneration (wages and salary)
- Accrued annual leave
- Long service leave entitlements
- Severance Pay

- If they are retrenched they are also entitled to severance/redundancy entitlements


Workplace relations/ Industrial Relations

- Optimal working relationships between the key stakeholders in the business ie. employer- employer groups, the employee- unions
- HR department oversees workplace relations


Types of Workplace Relations

Contractual: job description, work conditions, working hours, rate of pay, OH&S, policies and procedures
Emotional: emotional health, stress, work/life balance, community participation, safe
Physical: physical component- office, layout, factory distribution (OH&S)
Practical: day to to day running of the business


Role of a Trade Union

- A group of employees,usually from the same or similar industries combining to protect common interest relating to their employment
- Focused on improving working conditions for employees
- Annual leave, pensions, superannuation, maternity leave


What a Union does for its members

- Employees who join a union pay a subscription fee. The union then act on its behalf
- Negotiates and bargains on their behalf during the collective bargaining process
- Argues employees cases during hearings that determines awards
- Provides advice and support to local union shop stewards and worker in the workplace
- Provides assistance and support to individual workers
- Provides information to members on matters relevant to their workplace situation


Key member of the Union

Shop steward:
- On site
- Their role is to liaise with management and the union regarding workplace issues

Union Executive:
- People that run the union on a day to day
- They act to represent members in negotiation with employers


An employee's wages and conditions can be decided by:

Enterprise Agreement
Individual Employment Contract


National Employment Standards

Fair Work Act sets out 10 minimum employee standards

1. Maximum working hours
2. Flexible working arrangement requests
3. Parental Leave and related entitlements
4. Annual Leave
5. Personal/ carers and compassionate leave
6. Community service leave
7. Long service leave
8. Public holidays
9. Notice of termination and redundancy pay
10. Fair work information statement- a document MUST be provided to all new employees



- Legally binding minimum requirements for wages and conditions in certain industries
-Reviewed every 4 years by the Fair Work Commission


Specifications in each award

- Minimum Wages
- Working conditions and overtime
- Meal breaks
- Holiday and leave
- Penalty rates and allowances
- Procedure to resolve grievances and termination of employment
- Superannuation
- Annual leave and leave loading


Enterprise Agreement

Enterprise Bargaining/ Collective Bargaining: involves deciding the terms and conditions of employment through the direct negotiation between unions and employers

Enterprise agreement: is an agreement that is directly negotiated between the employer and employee at enterprise level and can be made to suit one group or a variety of groups of employees


How an Enterprise agreement works

- Must be approved by a majority vote by the employees affected
- Must be registered and approved by the Fair Work Commission
- Legally binding document
It includes:
- The agreement must be better than the relevant current award
- No unlawful terms
- Must run for a specified time of up to 4 years
- Includes a dispute process


Strike and Lockout

Strike: employees withdraw their labour and production ceases
- Illegal and subject to prosecution (unprotected action). The only alternative: strikes are legal during the period of enterprise bargaining (protected action)

Lockout: Employer/management does not allow workers to enter a plant or building to perform their work.


Individual Employment Contract

An individual can sign a contract with their employer outlining their wages and conditions- must be better than the minimum award


Process of determining wages and conditions

In Australia workplace relations are decentralised- the power to negotiate wages and conditions lies with individual employers and employees/unions who use enterprise bargaining to negotiate agreements

National Minimum Wages & National Employment Standards --> Awards --> Enterprise Agreements --> Individual Employment Contract


Dispute Resolution methods/ Grievance Procedures

Negotiation: involves direct discussion between the two parties without the involvement of an external third party.
Mediation: a third party that assists the parties to work towards a resolution but does not offer any suggestions.
Conciliation: uses a third party participant through the fair work commission that provides advice and clarifications to assist the parties in coming to a resolution
Arbitration: is where the parties present their case to a tribunal and an independent arbitrator/court make a legally binding decision on the parties behalf


Process of Dispute Resolution

1. Employee/s and/or their representatives meet with management to outline and discuss the problem.
2. Management listen and try to resolve problem. If resolution not possible, matter is referred to senior management.
3. If still no resolution, dispute is referred to an independent body for mediation.
4. If mediation fails, matter is referred to FWC for conciliation.
5. If conciliation fails, matter is arbitrated by FWC. Legally binding decision made by FWC.


How to assess workplace relations- use the following Key Performance Indicators

- The levels of employee participation in decision making
- The degree of workplace consultation
- The organisation values
- Productivity levels