# Unit 3: Forces, Fluids & Density Flashcards

1
Q

Particle Theory of Matter

A
1. Theory that explains the behaviour of solids, liquids, and gases.
2. It states that all matter is made up of tiny moving particles that attract each other and have spaces between them.
3. Adding heat makes particles move faster decreasing density resulting in a state of matter change.
2
Q

Solid

A

Particles are close together and in a fixed place; denser than liquids.

3
Q

Liquid

A

Particles are close together but can slide around and over each other; denser than gases.

4
Q

Gas

A

Particles are far apart and move rapidly.

5
Q

Fluid

A

Any matter that has no fixed shape, can flow, and takes the shape of its container; any substance in a gas or liquid state

6
Q

Viscosity

A

A liquid’s internal resistance or friction that keeps it from flowing

7
Q

Weight

A

Measure of the force of gravity on an object; measured in newtons (N)

8
Q

Mass

A

Measurement of the amount of matter that is in an object; often measured in grams

9
Q

Density

A

Mass per unit of volume; measure by dividing the mass of a substance by its volume; the amount of matter or number of particles in a given volume; g/mL or g/cm3

D = M/V

10
Q

Volume

A

The amount of space taken up by an object; liquids measured by mL and solids measured by cm3

11
Q

Force

A

Push or pull that tends to cause an object to move or change its motion; measured in Newtons (N)

12
Q

Buoyant Force

A

Upward force that a liquid exerts on an object, opposite to the pull of gravity on an object in a liquid; an important property of fluids; the property that causes a ship to float in water

13
Q

Gravitational Force

A

Force trying to pull an object down to the center of the Earth = 9.8m/s2 on Earth

14
Q

Pressure

A

A measure of the amount force applied to a particular area; measure in pascals (Pa) = N/m2

15
Q

Compression

A

Results when a force pushes on an object

16
Q

Hydraulic Device

A

Devices that use water or some other liquid in motion under pressure to do useful work

17
Q

Hydraulic Fluid

A

The liquid part put into a hydraulic system

18
Q

Hydraulic System

A

System that uses liquids in a confined space to transfer forces; operates according to Pascal’s Law

19
Q

Pneumatic Devices

A

Devices that use air or other gases in a confined space or transmit forces

20
Q

Pneumatic Systems

A

Confined, pressurized systems that use air or other gases to transmit forces

21
Q

Variables

A

Things that can be changed in a scientific experiment

22
Q

Fair Test

A

Experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time

23
Q

Balanced Forces

A

Opposite and equal forces acting on an object; for an object to remain suspended in water, the downward force of gravity must be balanced by and equal upward force

24
Q

Newton (N)

A

The unit used in science for measuring gravitational force, weight, and pressure.

25
Q

Personal Flotation Device (PFD)

A

A safety device designed to keep a person afloat in water

26
Q

Archimedes’ Principle

A

Buoyant force acting on an object equals the weight, or gravitational force, of the fluid displaced by the object

27
Q

A

A specialized organ in many fish, containing a mixture of air and water; this organ allows the fish to control it’s swimming depth

28
Q

Ballast Tank

A

Tanks in submarines that enable the submarine to dive and resurface; ballast tanks depend on a feature similar to a swim bladder in fish

29
Q

Water Displacement Method

A

Method of measuring volume which involves placing an object in a container of water and measuring the amount of water moved (displaced); alternatively, placing an object into a container full of water and measuring the volume of the overflow

30
Q

Contact Force

A

Force exerted when two objects are touching one another

31
Q

Non-contact Force

A

Force exerted between two things that are not touching

32
Q

Pascal’s Law

A

When pressure is applied to a liquid in a container, the pressure and force is transmitted equally and undiminished throughout the liquid; an enclosed liquid transmits pressure equally in all directions

33
Q

Incompressible

A

Unable to be compressed easily

34
Q

Input Device

A

Device that puts information into a system

35
Q

Output Device

A

Part of a system that responds to an input

36
Q

A

The ability to produce an output force larger than the input force

37
Q

Pump

A

A machine or device that displaces fluid by mechanical or physical action

38
Q

Closed Hydraulic System

A

Hydraulic systems where the liquid cannot leave the system

39
Q

Open Hydraulic System

A

Hydraulic systems where the liquid can leave the system; these can be used to transport fluids; Ex: hand pumps for water

40
Q

International System of Units

A

System of measurement that is based on powers of 10 and base units such as meters, liters, and grams.

41
Q

Matter

A

Anything that takes up space and has mass; can neither be created nor destroyed.

42
Q

A digital or triple balance scale is used to measure…

A

Mass

43
Q

A spring scale is used to measure…

A

weight and/or force

44
Q

Glassware, such as beakers and graduated cylinders, are used to measure…

A

volume

45
Q

The Greek scientist and mathematician Archimedes discovered this while in the bath tub

A

The water displacemnent method

46
Q

HHPS stands for…

A

Hazardous Household Products Symbols

47
Q

WHMIS stands for…

A

Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System

48
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Biohardous Infectious Materials:

for organisms or toxins that can cause disease in people or animals

49
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Corrosion:

for corrosive damage to metals, as well as skin and eyes

50
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Environment:

may cause damage to the aquatic environment

51
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Exclamation Mark:

may cause less serious health effects or damage the ozone layer

52
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Exploding Bomb:

for explosion or reactivity hazard

53
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Flame Over Circle:

for oxidizing hazards

54
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Gas Cylinder:

for gases under pressure

55
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Health Hazard:

may cause or suspected of causing serious health effects

56
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Skull and Crossbones:

can cause death or toxicity with short exposure to small amounts

57
Q

Which WHMIS symbol is this?

A

Flame:

for fire hazards

58
Q

These HHPS symbols mean:

A
1. Danger Flammable
2. Danger Poison
3. Caution Explosive
4. Danger Corrosive
59
Q

Methods/Tests used to measure viscosity:

A
1. Bubble Test - How long it takes an air bubble to rise through a tube of ﬂuid. The longer it takes for the bubble to travel through a ﬂuid, the higher the viscosity.
2. The Ramp Method: How long it takes a ﬂuid to ﬂow down a ramp. The longer it takes for a ﬂuid to ﬂow down a ramp, the higher the viscosity
60
Q

Air pressure at sea level is…

A

101.3 Pa

61
Q

Gravitational force on Earth is equal to…

A

9.8 m/s2

62
Q

Compressibility

A

the ability to become more compact when squeezed

63
Q

An example of a hydraulic system in the human body is our…

A

Heart

64
Q

An example of a pneumatic system in the human body is our…

A

Lungs

65
Q

If temperature increases then viscosity…

A

decreases and vice versa

66
Q

If the buoyant force is greater than or equal to the gravitational force then the object…

A

floats

67
Q

If the gravitational force (a.k.a. weight) on an object is greater than the buoyant force then the object…

A

sinks

68
Q

If mass increases then density…

A

increases and vice versa

69
Q

If the temperature increases then volume…

A

increases and vice versa

70
Q

If the volume increases then density…

A

decreases and vice versa

71
Q

If the temperature increases then pressure…

A

increases and vice versa

72
Q

If the force increases then the pressure…

A

increases and vice versa

73
Q

If the area increases, then the pressure…

A

decreases and vice versa