Flashcards in Unit 3.4 Nuclear Chemistry Deck (21):
What is radioactivity?
The result of unstable nuclei emitting energy or a particle to form more stable nuclei
What are the different types of radiation?
What properties does alpha radiation have?
Slow moving,positively charged particles that come from the nucleus of a radioactive element
What does Alpha radiation consist of?
Two protons and Two neutrons with a 2+ charge
What level of penetration does Alpha have?
Little penetration and will be stopped by a few cm of air or a sheet of paper
Nuclear decay with the emission of an Alpha particle
232 228 4 2+
Th - - - - > Ra + He^
90 88 2
What are Beta Particles?
What are the particles in Beta radiation like?
Fast moving, negatively charged particles, formed when a neutron from the nucleus splits into a proton and an electron
What is the penetration like in Beta Particles?
They have a greater penetration than Alpha and can pass through air but can't penetrate thin metal foil
What does the nuclear equation for Beta decay create?
A product with an atomic number that has increased but the mass number is unchanged
Example of a Beta decay nuclear question?
228 228 0
Ra---> Ac+ e
88 89 - 1
What is Gamma radiation?
Non-particle, it's not a particle but a form of electromagnetic radiation of high energy
What does the non particulate nature of Gamma waves mean?
They do not change the nature of an atom, so there are no nuclear equations for Gamma radiation
What is the penetration like in Gamma radiation?
The greatest penetration of the three types of radioactivity and thick lead or concrete is required to absorb Gamma Rays
The nature of the Beta Particle
Negatively charged so is attracted to the positively charged plate
The nature of the Alpha particle
Positively charged, so attracted to the negatively charged particle
Nature of Gamma waves
No charge because they are Non-particulate, so aren't affected by any of the charged plates
Uses of radioisotope Gamma emitter cobalt-60
The treatment of tumours
Uses of radioisotope, less penetrating Beta emitter phosphorus-32
Treatment of skin cancer
Uses of radioisotopes with a short half life
-Leaks in pipelines can be investigated
-The radiation emitted can be detected if a leak is present