Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (32):
What is the periodic table
A list of all the elements, in order of increasing atomic number
What are the columns called in the periodic table
What are the rows in the periodic table called
What does the group number tell you
How many electrons that are in the outer shell of the atoms
What are Vallency electrons
The outer shell electrons
The alkali metals
Alkaline earth metals
The noble gases
The period number gives information about the number of electrons shells that are available in that period
Hydrogen sits alone in the table because it's the only element with one electron shell
Trends in the periodic table
The elements in each numbered group show trends in their properties. For example as you go down group 1, the elements become more reactive or as you go down group 7 elements become less reactive and so on
Group 1-alkali metals
Their physical properties:
1. Like all metals, they are good conductors of heat and electricity.
2. They are softer than most other metals.
3.they have low melting and boiling points, compared to most metals
Their chemical properties:
1. All alkali metals react vigourously with water, releasing hydrogen gas and forming hydroxides. The hydroxides give alkaline solutions.
2. They react with non-metals. With chlorine they react to make chlorides and with oxygen they make oxides.
They form ionic compounds in which the metal ion has a charge of positive one. The compounds are white solids, which dissolves in water to give a colourless solution.
The trend in physical properties (group 1)
As it goes down
Melting points decrease
Boiling points decreases
Why did they have similar properties
Because atoms of the same number of Vallency electrons react in a similar way
Why The further you go down the group reactivity increases
Because the atoms get larger down the group because they add electron shells
Group 7-the halogens
I'm nonmetal group
From coloured gases
Are brittle and crumbly in their solid form, and do not conduct electricity
Form diatomic molecules (means they exist as 2 atoms)
Trends in their physical properties ( group 7)
As you go down :
Size and mass of atom increases
Melting and boiling points increase
Why does the reactivity increase as you go up group 7
Because the smaller the atom, the easier it is to attract the electron - so the more reactive an element will be
Why are they so reactive (group 7)
Because their atoms are only one electron short of a full shell
Group 0: the noble gases
A non-metal group
Contains colourless gasses, which occur naturally in air
Monatomic-they exist as single atoms
Unreactive because they have a full outer shell
Trends in their physical properties (group 0)
As you go down
Size and mass of atom increases
Density of gas increases
Boiling points increases
Uses of noble gases
Noble gases are unreactive, making them safe to use. They also grow when current is passed through them at low pressure.
Use of helium (noble gases)
Used to fill balloons and airships, because it is much lighter than air and will not catch fire.
Use of neon (noble gases)
Used in advertising signs. It glows red, but the colour can be changed by mixing it with other gases.
What can argon be used for? (Noble gases)
Used as a filler in ordinary tungsten light bulbs (oxygen would make the tungsten filament burn away)
Used to protect metals that are being welded. It won't react with the hot metals (unlike oxygen)
What is krypton used for (noble gases)
Used in lasers. For example for eye surgery and in car headlamps
What is xenon used for? (Noble gases)
Used in Lighthouse lamps, lights for hospitals operating theatres, and car headlamps.
The physical properties of transition elements
Hard, tough and strong
High melting points (mercury is an exception)
Malleable and ductile
Good conductors of heat and electricity
What are transition elements
The transition elements are the block of 30 elements in the middle of the periodic table. They are all metals.
What are the chemical properties of transition elements
They are much less reactive than the metals of group 1
They show no clear trend in reactivity, unlike the metals of group 1.
Most transition metals form coloured compounds
Most can form ions with different charges (they have variable Vallency)
They can form more than one compound with another element
Most transition metals can form complex ions.