Unit 4 - Water Systems On Earth Flashcards Preview

SHS (Zielke) Science 8 > Unit 4 - Water Systems On Earth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4 - Water Systems On Earth Deck (41):
1

Aquifer

Water-bearing formation, below the water table, where water fills all the spaces in the rock, sediment, or soil material (Pg. 278)

2

Brackish Water

Fresh water mixed with salt water; the salinity here is higher than in fresh water, but lower that in the open ocean (Pg. 286)

3

Climate

Average weather measure over a long period of time (Pg. 297)

4

Cold Surface Currents

Currents that move from polar or temperate areas to tropical areas (Pg. 317)

5

Condensation

Change of state from a gas to a liquid (Pg. 275)

6

Continental Glaciers

Glaciers that cover vast areas of land; also called ice sheets (Pg. 331)

7

Convection Currents

Movement of a fluid, such as air or water, that occurs due to temperature differences in the fluid (Pg. 317)

8

Currents

Streams of water that move within a larger body of water (Pg. 315)

9

Eskers

Deposits of sand and gravel in the pater of a winding river that form when parts of a glacier melt (Pg. 330)

10

Estuary

Where fresh water from rivers and streams mixes with the salt water of the ocean; many different kinds of plants, animals, and insects that can tolerate the brackish water liver here (Pg. 290)

11

Evaporation

Change of state from a liquid to a gas (Pg. 275)

12

Evapotranspiration

Release of water into the air by plants due to the process of transpiration (Pg. 275)

13

Flood Plain

Area flooded when a river overflows it’s banks; flood plains are a natural part of a river system (Pg. 343)

14

Glaciers

Large moving bodies of ice that form part of the water cycle and move in response to gravity; glaciers can be many meters or even kilometres thick (Pg. 303)

15

Ground Water

Water that soaks into the ground, collecting in the spaces in permeable rock or in between grains of gravel, sand, soil, and sediment (Pg. 277)

16

Humidity

Measure of how much water is in the air (Pg. 273)

17

Intertidal Zone

Shoreline along the ocean coast that is covered with water or uncovered depending on the tide; animals have developed special adaptations to life in this zone (Pg. 290)

18

Land Breeze

Convection current that blows if the land and onto the water (Pg. 325)

19

Limnetic Zone

Deeper open water area of a lake that still has light penetration; phytoplankton are food for the fish that live here (Pg. 292)

20

Littoral Zone

The zone from the shore of a lake to the location where aquatic plants stop growing (Pg. 292)

21

Local Climate

The average weather measured over a long period in a particular area (Pg. 312)

22

Marine

Description of anything related to the ocean (Pg. 289)

23

Microclimate

Areas within a larger climate area that have distinctly different characteristics (Pg. 313)

24

Oceanic Zone

Deepest parts of the ocean beyond the continental shelves; much of this water receives no light at all, and since it is also far from shore, not as many nutrients are available for plants (Pg. 291)

25

Oceans

The large areas of salt water solution that cover most of the Earth’s surface (Pg. 283)

26

Phytoplankton

Microscopic plants that live in the upper part of the ocean; many marine animals feed on these plants (Pg. 291)

27

Precipitation

Solid (ice, snow) or liquid water that falls from clouds (Pg. 275)

28

Profundal Zone

Deepest water of a lake; no light penetrates this zone, so no plants grow here (Pg. 292)

29

Runoff

The draining away of water from the ground surface into rivers and streams (Pg. 283)

30

Salinity

The amount of salt in water (Pg. 283)

31

Sea Breeze

Convection current that blows off the water and onto the land (Pg. 325)

32

Source

The beginning point of a river (Pg 303)

33

Surface Water

Water in rivers, streams, lakes and ponds (Pg. 277)

34

Swells

Waves in the open water far from shore (Pg. 309)

35

Valley Glaciers

Glaciers that form high up in mountain ranges and spread down between the peaks of high valleys (Pg. 331)

36

Warm Surface Currents

Currents that flow from tropical areas to cooler or temperate areas (Pg. 316)

37

Water Cycle

Movement of water through different states of matter (Pg. 275)

38

Water Table

Boundary between the area where all the spaces between water-bearing materials are full of water and the area where the spaces are filled with a mixture of air and water (Pg. 277)

39

Watershed

All the areas of land that drain into one main lake or river (Pg. 277)

40

Waves

Patterns of energy that move along the water’s surface, caused by energy transfer between water molecules (Pg. 309)

41

Wind

The energy of moving air (Pg. 309)