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Flashcards in unit 5 Deck (21):
1

4 points of Mendel

Genes with different variations of inherited characters
Each organism receives genes from both of the parents
Dominant gens determines the appearance
Law of segregation- 2 alleles separates from each other and end up in different gametes.

2

Test cross

Cross with homo recessive

3

Addition and multiplication

Multiplication- to find the probability of 2 independent events happening
Addition- when more than one arrangement of events producing specific events are possible. Ex: one blue then one red

4

Explain Tay-Sachs and complete, incomplete, plus codominant

Incomplete dominance- blending ( white plus red equals pink), intermediate phenotype.
Codominant- both traits showed. Heterozygous
Completely dominance- no recessive.

5

Genetic skin example

2 or more genes on one factor
Capital (dominance) lower case (recessive)
Heterozygous in the middle

6

Epistasis

two separate genes control one gene but one masks the expression of another gene.

7

Inbreeding = birth defects

More likely to breed homozygous traits that are undesirable.

8

Sickle-cell anemia

-Caused by substitution of a amino acid in the hemoglobin protein of red blood cells.
-Reduces the severity of malaria attacks

9

Why more lethal recessive alleles

Recessive carries down but dominants showed and more likely to cause death.

10

Fetal testing

Amniocentesis- inserts a needle and get amniotic fluid
Chorionic villus sampling- inserts a narrow tube and takes out a tissue.

11

Morgan fruit fly experiment

Show how chromosomes affects inheritance factors
Fruits fly 3 autónomos and 1 sex chromosome
XY XX
Wild type red eyes
White eyes only on male
Linked to X

12

Basics of chromosome theory of inheritance

Chromosomes in pairs in diploid cell and separated during meiosis

13

Types of sex chromosome

X-Y- sex depend on the sperm cell ( X or Y)
X-0- determined by whether the cell has X or no X chromosome
Z-X- sex chromosome in egg determines. F: ZW M: ZZ
Haploid-diploid- no sex chromosome, female from fertilized egg and are diploid. Male, unfertilized and haploid.

14

X linked diseases

Color blindness
Dúchense muscular dystrophy- weakens muscle plus loss of coordination
Hemophilia- absence of one or more protein for blood clotting.

15

Crossing over unlinked genes

Break physical connection between alleles.

16

Linkage map

Find the recombination rate of it and able to figure out how often it occurs.

17

Information of cytogenetic map

Locates gene with chromosome receives two of the chromosome and another with no copy.

18

Monosomic, trisomic, polyploidy

Monosomic- missing chromosome in the zygote
Trisomic- present in triplicate +1
Polyploidy- more than 2 complete chromosome in all somatic cells.

19

Alternations of chromosome structure

Deletion- fragment is lost
Duplication- extra fragment attaches to same fragment
Inversion- attaches to original but in reverse orientation
Translocation- a fragment joining another fragment

20

Imprinting

When one gene is expressed the other would not be express.

21

Mitochondrial DNA

Makes proteins and if go wrong it could cause many diseases.
Ex: Myopathy.