Flashcards in Unit 6 Deck (55):
The process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
Any event or situation that evokes a response.
The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Neutral stimulus (NS)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.
Unconditioned response (UR)
In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth).
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR).
Conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR).
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning).
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditional stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Law of effect
Thorndike's principal that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
In operant condition, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
An event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows.
A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
A sudden realization of a problem's solution.
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
Attempting to alleviate stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction.
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
External locus of control
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.
Internal locus of control
The perception that you control your own fate.
The ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards.
Learning by observing others. Also called social learning.
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.