Flashcards in Unit One Test Deck (100):
What are the characteristics of life (there are several)?
Will eventually die, reproduces, metabolism, has cells, genetic material, develops/grows, responds to stimuli, and can adapt.
Why aren't viruses considered to be alive?
Because they aren't cells, only a collection of DNA and proteins.
What happens when you change the amount of protons in an atom?
It becomes a new element.
What happens when you change the amount of electrons in an atom?
It becomes an ion.
What happens when you change the amount of neutrons in an atom?
It becomes an isotope.
What is electronegativity?
The attraction between a nucleus and the valance electrons of another atom.
What are the intermolecular forces?
Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole, and dispersion.
What happens when a reaction reaction reaches equilibrium?
The forwards and reverse reactions occur at the same rate.
What makes a solution acidic?
An acidic solution gives away H+ ions.
The pH is less than 7, and the pOH is greater than 7.
What makes a solution basic?
A basic solution gives away OH- ions.
The pH is greater than 7, and the pOH is less than 7.
What makes two things superposable?
Two things are superposable if when you place one on top of the other, they are exactly the same.
What makes two things chiral?
Two things are chiral if when they are placed on top of each other, they are mirror images.
What are isomers?
Molecules with the same formula, but a different arrangement of atoms.
What are constitutional isomers?
Molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different connectivity (completely different shape).
What are stereoisomers?
Molecules with the same connectivity, but a different arrangement of molecules in space (same shape).
What are the two types of stereoisomers?
Enantiomers and diastereomers.
What are enantiomers?
Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other.
What are diastereomers?
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other.
Why are enantiomers important?
They help enzymes to find the "right" substrate for binding.
Where is potential chemical energy stored?
In chemical bonds.
What is ATP and what does it do?
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is a nucleotide with three phosphate atoms. It transports energy in the chemical bonds between the phosphates.
What are enzymes and what do they do?
Enzymes are proteins, and they lower the activation energy in reactions.
What are the two models for enzymes?
The lock and key model and the induced fit model.
What is the lock and key model for enzymes?
The idea that an enzyme and a substrate must fit perfectly together.
What is the induced fit model for enzymes?
The idea that the enzyme is induced by the substrate to change its shape so that they will fit together.
Enzymes only work when the Gibbs free energy is ___________.
What is coupling?
When the energy released by a spontaneous reaction is used to start a non spontaneous reaction within a cell.
What is the transition state?
The state where the reaction is at its highest energy, and can move either forwards or backwards.
What are cofactors?
Molecules that bind to enzymes to help it do its job. Cofactors are nonproteins, and are used up in a reaction.
What are inhibitors?
Molecules that prevent enzymes from working.
What are competitive inhibitors?
Inhibitors that compete with the substrate to bond with an enzyme's active site.
What are noncompetitive inhibitors?
Inhibitors that bond outside of an enzyme's active site to change the shape of the enzyme.
What is the difference between allosteric activation and allosteric inhibition?
Allosteric activation is when a molecule changes an enzyme from inactive to active. Allosteric inhibition is when a molecule changes an enzyme from active to inactive.
What are the elements of life (these are out of order sorry)?
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Phosphate, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Sulfur, and Chlorine.
What is the suffix of carbohydrates?
What are monomers of carbohydrates called?
What is a monosaccharide with 3 carbons called? What about 4? 5? 6?
3-triose, 4-tetrose, 5-pentose, 6-hexose
What is the difference between the Keto and Aldehyde groups of monosaccharides?
An aldose has a carbonyl bonded to an H, while a kerosene has a carbonyl bonded to another C.
What is the difference between a pyranose structure and a furanose structure?
Pyranose is a 6 pointed ring structure, while furanose is a 5 pointed ring structure.
What is the difference between alpha and beta monosaccharides?
Alpha is cis with the OH on the same level the CH2OH, and beta is trans with the OH on a different level from the CH2OH.
Are human proteins left or right handed?
Human proteins are left handed.
Is our genetic material right or left handed?
Our genetic material is right handed.
How do we classify linked monosaccharides?
more than 10 sugars—polysaccharide
How do two monosaccharides come together to make a disaccharide?
Through dehydration (so the final chemical formula will be C12H22O11)
What are macromolecules?
Large molecules made of repeating units (polymers).
What is a homopolysaccharide?
A macromolecule with all of the same subunits.
What is a heteropolysaccaride?
A macromolecule made from different monomers.
What are the four most important sugars made from glucose (glucans)?
Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose, and Chitin.
What is glycogen?
The stored sugar found in animals, with many branches.
What is Starch?
The stored sugar in plants. There is amylose, with no branches and many spirals, and amylopectin, with a few branching points. Amylopectin is more common.
What is cellulose?
A glucan that makes up cell walls and lines up in parallel fibers.
What is Chitin?
A glucan found in the exoskeleton of insects.
Why is it important for glucans to have branches?
Branches make glucan have a larger surface area, so it's easier to break them down.
Why aren't lipids used for quick energy?
Lipids are nonpolar, so they won't stay easily in our cells.
What are the three most common disaccharides?
glucose+fructose=sucrose (table sugar)
What are the functions of proteins?
Enzymes, antibodies, cell communication, pigmentation, and cell shape.
How can proteins be recognized?
Proteins have a carboxl group, an amino group, and a side chain.
How does the pH of a protein's environment determine its charge?
An acidic environment makes the protein a cation, a basic environment makes the protein an anion.
What are the three levels of protein structure?
Primary, secondary, and tertiary.
What is the primary structure of a protein structure?
It's the amino acid sequence. The primary structure determines what the tertiary structure will look like. Nonpolar molecules will stay on the inside of the structure, while polar molecules will go to the outside.
What is the secondary structure of proteins?
Proteins will either form an alpha helix (spiral shaped), or beta plated sheets (zig-zag). The secondary structure is formed through hydrogen bonds.
What is the tertiary structure of proteins?
The protein forms a 3-D shape in the tertiary structure through disulfide bonds.
What are the functions of lipids?
Long term energy reserve, regulates movement of materials across a cell, insulation, cushioning, and cell communication.
What are the four main types of lipids?
Triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, and steroids.
What is a triglyceride?
A lipid with three fatty acids.
What is a saturated fat?
A fatty acid with only single bonds between carbons. They are "saturated" with carbons and are solid at room temperature.
What is an unsaturated fat?
A fatty acid with at least one double bond between carbons. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
What are trans fats?
Trans fats are unsaturated, but they're shaped in a way where they can pack together like saturated fats do. This makes them solid at room temperature.
Where can phospholipids be found in the cell and why?
Phospholipids can be found in the cell wall. Because both the inside and outside of a cell is polar, phospholipids are able to form a bilayer membrane with a nonpolar inside that prevents the cell from overfilling with water.
What are phospholipids made from?
Phospholipids are made from two fatty acids, a glycerol, and a phosphate group. Since the fatty acids are nonpolar and the phosphate group is, phospholipids are amphiatic.
What is the function of DNA?
To make codes for proteins and to pass on genetic information.
Which elements is DNA made from?
C, H, O, P, and N.
What is the structure of DNA?
A phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
What are monomers of DNA called?
What is a nucleoside?
A nitrogenous base with a sugar (but no phosphate).
How are the sugar and the base of a nucleotide linked together?
Through glycosidic beta linkage.
How are different nucleotides linked together?
Through phosphodiester bonds, which link a sugar of one nucleotide to a phosphate of another nucleotide.
How do polynucleotides bond with each other to form double helixes?
Through hydrogen bonding between the nitrogenous bases.
What is a purine?
A nucleotide where the nitrogenous base has two rings.
What is a pyrimidine?
A nucleotide where the nitrogenous base has one ring.
What are the two purines found in DNA?
Adenine and Guanosine.
What are the two pyrimidines found in DNA?
Cytosine and Thymine.
What are the two pyrimidines found in RNA?
Cytosine and Uracil.
What are the hydrogen bonding groups in a DNA strand, and how many bonds do they have?
Adenine-Thymine*: two bonds
Guanosine-Cytosine: three bonds
*in RNA Thymine is replaced with Uracil
How does a nucleotide come together?
What are the sugars found in DNA/RNA?
Deoxyribose is found in DNA, ribose is found in RNA.
What types of sugars are deoxyribose and ribose?
Furanose pentose sugars.
What is the difference between deoxyribose and ribose?
Deoxyribose has one less O than ribose.
What are the chemical formulas of deoxyribose and ribose?
How are the rungs of DNA oriented?
Antiparallel and complementary: one strand goes from 3' to 5', and the other strand goes from 5' to 3'.
What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
•DNA is normally a double helix while RNA is usually a single strand
•DNA is made from deoxyribose while RNA is made from ribose
•DNA has thymine while RNA has uracil
What are the functions of DNA, RNA, and ATP?
DNA—codes for proteins, hereditary material
RNA—transcription and translation, in between DNA and protein
What are the six main functional groups?
Alcohol, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, and Phosphate.
What are the properties/structure of alcohol?
OH bonded to an R group: polar, hydrophilic, hydrogen bonds to water and itself, suffix "-ol"
What are the properties/structure of carbonyl?
C double bonded to O and two R groups: polar, high boiling point, contributes to polarity, can form hydrogen bonds with water but not itself, suffix "-one" and "-al".
What are the properties/structure of Carboxyl?
C double bonded to O and single bonded to OH and an R group: polar, acidic, high boiling point, hydrophilic, hydrogen bonds with itself and water, suffix "-oic acid"
What are the properties/structure of Amino?
N bonded to two Hs and an R group: basic, high boiling point polar, hydrophilic, forms hydrogen bonds with itself and water, suffix "-amine".
What are the properties/structure of Sulfhydryl?
S bonded to H and an R group: nonpolar, hydrophobic, low boiling point, no hydrogen bonding, can form disulfide bridges, suffix "-thiols"
What are the properties/structure of Phosphate?
P double bonded to O and single bonded to three more Os: slightly soluble, very acidic, can hydrogen bond with water but not itself, suffix "-phosphate"