Unit3.1(Industry) how has the location of manufacturing industries in HK changed over time ? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit3.1(Industry) how has the location of manufacturing industries in HK changed over time ? Deck (26)
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1

Definition of primary industry and give examples

- Industry which use materials found in nature
- farming, fishing, mining, lumbering

2

Definition of secondary industry and give examples

- Industries which make things from raw materials or semi-finished products into more valuable products by procedures by processing or assembling
- manufacturing, construction

3

Definition of tertiary industry and give examples

- industries which provide services to other industries and to people
- banking, retailing, tourism, transport

4

Definition of quaternary industry and gives the examples

- Industries which concentrated with information, its application, manipulation and transmission
- space industry, medical research, software development, media

5

Examples of inputs
1. Physical inputs
2. Cultural inputs

1. Raw materials, land

2. Power supply, government polices, capital, technology, labour, transport, market

6

Characteristics of light and heavy industry and examples

- Light industry:
•light raw materials are used
•light products are produced
•electronics, textile

-heavy industry:
•heavy and bulky raw materials are used
•heavy products are produced
•iron and steel , shipbuilding

7

Characteristics of labour-intensive and capital-intensive industry and examples

1. Labour-intensive:
•much labour is used in production
• garment, watch-making

2. Capital- intensive:
•much capital is used in production
•car-manufacturing, petrochemical

8

Characteristics of low-tech industry and high-tech industry and examples

1. Low-tech:
•little investment and labour are put in R&D
•traditional methods of production are used
•match-manufacturing, handicraft

2.high-tech :
•much investment and labour are put intoR&D
•tradition methods of production are used
•computer and chips, genetic engineering

9

What are the differences between a factory and a manufacturing firm?

Manufacturing firm:
-R&D
-marketing
-account keeping
-product design
-logistic

Factory:
-production

10

What are the major manufacturing industries in HK before 1950s? Where were they located?

Before 1950
- Location:
•along the northern coast of Hong Kong island (from North point in the east to Sheung Wan in the west )
- type of industries:
•heavy industries related to port activities, such as shipbuilding, ship-repairing industries
•light industries such as furniture making and food processin
- Importance to hk : no significant

11

What are the major manufacturing industries in HK in the 1950s? Where were they located?

In the 1950
-location:
•extend along both side of Victoria Harbour
-type of industry:
•textile and other light industries such as plastics, wigs and food processing
-importance to hk economy:
•textile industry was the major source of income and employed the largest number of workers

12

What are the major manufacturing industries in HK between 1960s and the 1970s ? Where were they located?

Between 1960s and 1970s
-location :
• extend further along both sides of Victoria harbour
(From Kwun Tong to Tsuen Wan in the northern side of habour and Chai Wan to Western District in the southern side of the habour)
Mid-1970s,some industries have been set up in industrial estates in new towns
-type of industries:
•manufacturing became more diversified but textile industry was still the most important
-importance to hk economy:
•manufacturing became the largest employer and contributed most to the economy

13

What location factors favored the development of manufacturing industries in 1950s ?

•free port policy
•good port facilities
•politically stable
•sufficient and cheap labour supply
•capital and technology available

14

What location factors favored the development of manufacturing industries between 1960s to 1970s ?

•free port policy
•good transport facilities
•good legal system
•low tax rates and no exchange control
•efficient telecommunication facilities
•good technical backup service and support the industry
•abundant supply of high quality professionals

15

Name the following places
•A
•B. •C. •D




•E
•F. •G
•H. •Hong Kong

A: Guangzhou
B:Foshan
C:Dongguan
D:Huizhou
E:Jiangmen
F:Zhongshan
G:Shen Zhen
H:Zhuhai

16

What manufacturing activity that most firm preferred to located in HK?
Why?

•regional headquarters
•scales and marketing
•R&D
•IT management

-reasons:
•supply of high quality professionals
•politically stable and secure
•well-established legal system
•efficient transport network and telecommunication facilities
•support services
•good connection with overseas markets

17

What manufacturing activity that most firm preferred to located in Guang Dong? Why?

•production
•storage and transportation

-reasons:
•plenty of cheap flat land
•lower labour cost
•looser environmental regulations

18

explain why Hong Kong industrialists moved their factories to the ZDR (Zhu Jiang Delta Region) between the 1980s and the early 2000s.

•The ZDR is close to Hong Kong which can enjoy pyoximity to HK.
•Railway and road networks linking Hong Kong and different manufacturing centres in the ZDR are available.
•Industrialists could manage the factories and obtain technological and other services from Hong Kong conveniently

19

What is the Factors causing relocation of factories from hk to ZDR?

About labour

-Labour:
•Push factor of Hong Kong
~Most manufacturing industries in Hong Kong were labouur- intensive.
~The high labour costs in Hong Kong raised production costs and lowered profit of the firms.
•Pull factor of the ZDR :
~Low labour costs in the ZDR greatly reduced the production costs of labour-intensive industry.
~This helped increase the profit of the firms

20

What is the Factors causing relocation of factories from hk to ZDR?

About land

-Land availability :
•push factor of HK:
~Lack of flat land forced firms to carry out production operations in flatted factories
~This hindered expansion and lowered production efficiency.
•pull factor of ZDR:
~Extensive flat land is available in the delta region.
~This make expansion of production facilities available
-Land prices :
•push factor of HK:
~Higher land price
•pull factor of ZDR:
~Lower land price

21

What is the Factors causing relocation of factories from hk to ZDR?

About Government policies

• push factor of HK:
~ strict environmental protection regulations increased product costs and lowered profits

•pull factor of ZDR:
~ manufactures need not to invest plenty of money in environmental protection because of loose regulations.
~the local governments may provided basic facilities and infrastructure eg.transport network,electricity and water supply
~favourable terms such as tax concessions even tax exemption in first or second year ere offered to foreign investors

22

Where have the Hong Kong manufacturing firms relocated their factories?

They have relocated their factories to northern Guangdong, other inland provinces or even to other south/south-east Asian countries

23

What are the factors causing the relocation of factories from ZDR to south-east Asian Countries?
About labour

• Push factor of the ZDR .
~The wages of workers have been rising rapidly. This greatly increases production costs.
~There is a shortage of workers, since workers can go to other places in China or their home towns to find work now.
~as there is more labour protection measures ,eg under the new labour law, employers are required to provide local workers with medical coverage and annual leave and it may increase the labour cost
•Pull factor of south-east Asian countries
~The wages are lower and thus more competitive

24

What are the factors causing the relocation of factories from ZDR to south-east Asian Countries?
About government policies

•push factors of ZDR:
~The local governments have tightened the environmental protection regulations. This increases production costs. .
~The Guangdong government has adopted an economic policy of “emptying the cage and letting the right birds in'” Under this policy, the low value-added and polluting industries are forced to move away from the ZDR.
•pull factors of south-eastern country:
~the environmental protection regulations are less strict

25

What are the factors causing the relocation of factories from ZDR to south-east Asian Countries?
About trade relations and other factors

•trade relations
~ The USA and some European countries have imposed high tariffs on certain Chinese imports, e.g. shoes and solar panels, since the trade relations between these countries and China become more intense.
~the other south-east countries are less affected by overseas protectionist measures.
•other factors:
~Power shortage in the region triggered blackouts which disturb oproduction.

26

What types of industries may stay in ZDR? Why?

Some industries may continue operation in Guangdong Province.
•High-technology industries e.g. electronics, IT products
•products of higher value
•Less polluting industries