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Flashcards in Up to Exam 1 Deck (209):
1

Collateral Damage

A term used to describe unintended casualties. Usually applied to civilians who have been mistakenly killed.

2

Dirty War

A term given to a campaign of state-sponsored terror waged in Argentina during the 1970's. Tens of thousands of people were tortured, disappeared, or killed.

3

Extremism

A radical expression of political values.

Political opinions that are intolerant toward opposing interests and divergent opinions. Extremism forms the ideological foundation for political violence. Radical and reactionary extremists often rationalize and justify acts of violence committed on behalf of their cause.

Extremism can be a definition of terrorism, but doesn't have to lead to terrorism. See themselves as a protector of a specific truth.
Clear sense of mission and purpose and righteousness
Typically in a group

4

"Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice"

An uncompromising belief in the absolute righteousness of a cause. A moralistic concept that clearly defines good and evil. The statement was made my Senator Barry Goldwater during the 1964 presidential election in the United States

5

Federal Bureau of Investigation

An investigative bureau within the U.S. Department of Justice, it is the largest federal law enforcement agency. Among its duties are domestic counterterrorism and intelligence collection

6

Freedom Fighter

One who fights on behalf of an oppressed group. A very contextual term

7

Guerrilla

A term first used during Spanish resistance against French occupation troops during the Napolenic Wars. It refers to irregular hit-and-run tactics.

8

Hezbollah

A Lebanese Shi'a movement that promotes Islamic revolution. It was prominent in the resistance against the Israeli presence in South Lebanon and frequently engaging in terrorism,

9

International Terrorism

Terrorism that is directed against targets symbolizing International interests. These attacks can occur against domestic targets that have international symbolism or against targets in the international arena.

10

"It became necessary to destroy the town to save it"

An extremist goal to destroy an existing order without developing a clear vision for the aftermath. A moralistic concept to justify terrorist behavior. The Statement was allegedly made by an American officer during the war in Vietnam

11

"Kill One Man, Terrorize a Thousand"

A paraphrasing of a quotation by the Chinese military philosopher Wu Ch'i. Variously ascribed to the Chinese military philosopher Sun Txu and Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong

12

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

A nationalist group in Sri Lanka that champions the independence of the Tamil people. Responsible for many acts of terrorism

13

Narco-terrorism

Political violence committed by dissident drug traffickers who are primarily concerned with protecting their criminal enterprise. This is in contradistinction to drug-related violence.

14

"One man willing to throw away his life is enough to terrorize a thousand"

The symbolic power of a precise application of force by an individual who is willing to sacrifice himself or herself can terrorize many other people. A moralistic concept that illustrates how a weak adversary can influence a strong adversary. The statement was made by the Chinese military philosopher wu ch'i

15

"one man's terrorist is another persons freedom fighter"

The importance of perspective in the use of violence to achieve political goals. Championed groups view violent rebels as freedom fighters, whereas their adversaries consider them terrorists

16

Palestine Liberation Organization PLO

an umbrella Palestinian nationalist organization. it comprises numerous activist factions, many of which engage in political violence

17

Provisional Irish Republican Army PROVOS

A terrorist organization in Northern Ireland that champions the rights of Northern Irish Catholics. The PIRA was formed with the goal of uniting Northern Ireland with the Irish Republic

18

Soft Targets

Civilian and other undefended targets that are easily victimized by terrorists

19

Terrorism

Elements from the American definitional model define terrorism as a premeditated and unlawful act in which groups or agents of some principal engage in a threatened or actual use of force or violence against human or property targets. These groups or agents engage in this behavior intending the purposeful intimidation of governments or people to affect policy or behavior with an underlying political objective. There are more than 100 definitions of terrorism.

20

Terrorist

One who practices terrorism. Often a highly contextual term

21

Third world

A postwar term created to describe the developing world

22

Wars of National Liberation

A series or wars fought in the developing world in the postwar era. These conflicts frequently pitted indigenous guerrilla fighters against European colonial powers or governments perceived as pro western. Insurgents were frequently supported by the Soviet Bloc or China

23

Al qaeda

An international network of Islamic mujahideen organized by Osama bin Laden in the aftermath of the anti-Soviet Jihad in Afghanistan. Responsible for many acts of international and domestic terrorism,

24

Anarchism

A political ideology developed during the 19th century that championed the working class and opposed central control by governments

25

Classical ideological continuum

Symbolic political designations derived from the French Revolution. The concepts of left, center, and right have become part of modern political culture.

26

Conservatism

A political ideology that seeks to preserve traditional values

27

Dictatorship of the Proletariat

The Marxist belief that the communist revolution will result in the establishment of a working class–centered government.

28

Far Left

The extremist, but not necessarily violent, left wing. Usually strongly influenced by Marxist ideology. Radical in political orientation.

29

Far Right

The extremist, but not necessarily violent, right wing. Reactionary in political orientation.

30

Fascism

An ideology developed during the mid-20th century that emphasized strong state-centered authority, extreme law and order, militarism, and nationalism. Variants of fascism were applied during the 1930s in Italy, Germany, and Spain, as well as in Latin America during the postwar era.

31

Fringe Left

The revolutionary left. Often violent.

32

Fringe right

The revolutionary right. Often violent.

33

Hauge Convention

A series of international agreements that tried to establish rules for conflict.

34

Ideologies

Systems of political belief

35

Left, Center, Right

Designations on the classical ideological continuum. The left tends to promote social change. The center tends to favor incremental change and the status quo. The right tends to favor traditional values

36

Luddites

A movement of English workers during the early 1800s. The Luddites objected to the social and economic transformations of the Industrial Revolution. They targeted the machinery of the new textile factories, and textile mills and weaving machinery were disrupted and sabotaged. After 17 Luddites were executed in 1813, the movement gradually died out.

37

Manifesto of the Communist party

The seminal document of communism, written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

38

Manipulation of the Media

The attempt by state and substate participants in a terrorist environment to control or otherwise affect the reporting of news by the media.

39

Karl Marx

A mid-19th-century philosopher who, along with Friedrich Engels, developed the ideology of class struggle.

40

Marxism

An ideology that believes in the historical inevitability of class conflict, culminating in the final conflict that will establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.

41

Means of production

A Marxist concept describing the primary source of economic production and activity during the stages of human social evolution.

42

***New Terrorism***

A typology of terrorism characterized by a loose cell-based organizational structure, asymmetrical tactics, the threatened use of weapons of mass destruction, potentially high casualty rates, and usually a religious or mystical motivation.

43

Operation Iraqi Freedom

The designation given to the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003.

44

Propaganda by the deed

The notion that revolutionaries must violently act on their beliefs to promote the ideals of the revolution. Originally promoted by the anarchists.

45

"Property is theft!"

The anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s belief that systems based on the acquisition of private property are inherently exploitative.

46

Regicide

The killing of kings

47

Reign of Terror (régime de la terreur)

A period during the French Revolution when the new republic violently purged those who were thought a threat to the prevailing ideals of the revolution. Terrorism was considered a necessary and progressive revolutionary tactic.

48

Revolutionary Tribunal

The revolutionary court established during the French Revolution.

49

Sicarii

The Zealot rebels who opposed Roman rule. Named for the curved dagger, or sica, that was a preferred weapon.

50

Social Revolutionary Party

A Russian revolutionary movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The group adopted terrorism as a revolutionary method.

51

Struggle meetings

Revolutionary rallies held during the Chinese Revolution. Denunciations were often made against those thought to be a threat to the revolution

52

Total War

The unrestrained use of force against a broad selection of targets to utterly defeat an enemy.

53

Tyrannicide

The assassination of tyrants for the greater good of society.

54

Vanguard strategy

In Marxist and non-Marxist theory, the strategy of using a well-indoctrinated and motivated elite to lead the working-class revolution. In practice, this strategy was adopted in the postwar era by terrorist organizations and extremist movements.

55

Zealots

Hebrew rebels who uncompromisingly opposed Roman rule in ancient Palestine.

56

Common Characteristics of Violent terrorists

Intolerance
Moral absolutes
broad conclusions
new language/conspiratorial beliefs

57

Complications of Defining terrorism

Perspective: terrorist v freedom fighter
political and cultural biases
state v non state actors

58

Guerrilla warfare

different from terrorism
larger groups
attacking combatants
control of a population or territory

59

Elements of Terrorism

use or threat of use of pre-meditated violence that is politically motivated
violence is extra normal or exceeds moral conventions
mainly against soft targets/non combatants
sends a message to a broader message

60

Types of Terrorism

state
dissident/non-state
religious ---- fits nicely in "good v evil" ideology

61

Objectives and goals of terrorism

changing existing goals
psychological disruption
social disruption
creating a revolutionary environment
overreaction creates other people to join the revolution
playing to the audience

62

Critical approaches of Terrorism

They're not all mad men
traditionalists have tunnel vision and don't see the bigger picture
critical approach--criticize and give an alternative

63

Historical perspective

Antiquity
the Roman
ancient & the medieval middle east
Dark ages
Terrorism wasn't treated as something separate until much later

64

French Revolution

Term terrorism was first used
"The reign of Terror"
Late 1700's started a different strategy

65

18th-19th century

Nation states began to exist
Terrorism started to "look" more like were used to today

66

Rapeport Waves

20-30 year waves

67

Ideology

systems of belief derived from theories that explain human social and political conditions
every ideology has extremists

68

where did the left and right come from

where the different ideologies sat in the assembly after the French revolution

69

The Just War Doctrine

reason why it would be ok to go to war
WAR is bad but ones reason to go to war is moral

70

New Era of terrorism

Three fundamental differences
1) International
"near enemy" (ones supporting western ideals in the Middle East) v "far enemy" (US and western countries)
2) New Mortality/ Indiscriminate
noncombatants and civilians "extraordinary"
3) Lethality
mass causality (scale)
weapons of mass destruction (bioweapons and technology)

71

Modern Era

Rapeport Waves

Late 1800's - now

Anarchist wave: 1880s until WWI (Russian Revolution and Assassination of MicKinley)
Anticolonial wave: countries fighting against colonial powers WWI-1960's
The New Left Wave: late 60's to the near present. Usually referring to the soviet communist red army in the west (Cuba and Latin America)
Religious Wave: 1980's to now
1979 overthrow in Iran hostage situation theological and religious government
religion became a justification

72

Traditional Terrorism characteristics

clearly identifiable
conventional weapons
specific grievances for a specific group
discriminate and "surgical"

73

New Terrorism characteristics

loose cell based networks
less likely to take credit
desired acquisition of high intensity weapons
politically vague, religious, or mystical motivation
Asymmetrical methods
Use of the internet and manipulation of the media

74

Absolute deprivation

A sociological term that indicates the lack of basic human needs for survival.

75

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)

The designation given to Abu Nidal’s movement.

76

Act of political will

The notion that one can force change by an absolute commitment to a cause. All that is required is com-plete and uncompromising dedication to achieving one’s goals.

77

Black September

A campaign waged by the Jordanian army in September 1970 to suppress what was perceived as a threat to Jordanian sovereignty from Palestinian fighters and leaders based in Jordan.

78

Black Widows

The term given by the Russian media and authorities to Chechen women who participate in terrorist attacks against Russian interests. Many Black Widows engage in suicide operations, and such women volunteer, are manipu-lated, or are coerced to enlist. They are allegedly the relatives of Chechen men who have been killed in the conflict.

79

Bloody Sunday

An incident on January 30, 1972, in Lon-donderry, Northern Ireland, when British paratroopers fired on demonstrators, killing 13 people.

80

Codes of self-sacrifice

Philosophical, ideological, or reli-gious doctrines that create a warrior ethic in followers of the doc-trine. Codes of self-sacrifice instill a sense of a higher calling that allows for the adoption of a superior morality. Followers consider acts of violence carried out in the name of the code completely justifiable.

81

End justifies the means

A concept wherein the desired goal is so just that the methods used to obtain the goal are acceptable regardless of their immediate consequences.

82

Freedom Birds

A term given to female combatants in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

83

Kosovo

A region in southern Yugoslavia that many Serbs con-sider their spiritual homeland. It became an international flash point when ethnic Albanian Kosovars sought to secede from Yugoslavia.

84

Mini-Manual of the Urban Guerrilla

An influential essay written by Carlos Marighella that outlined his theory of urban dissident terrorist warfare.

85

Mujahideen

Individuals who wage war in defense of Islam. Literally, “holy warriors.”

86

Nihilist dissidents

Antistate dissidents whose goal is to destroy the existing social order with little consideration given for the aftermath of the revolution. They practice “revolution for revolution’s sake.”

87

Pan-Arabism

An international Arab nationalist movement that held momentum after World War II.

88

People’s war

A concept in irregular warfare in which the guerrilla fighters and the populace are theoretically indistinguishable.

89

Proletariat

A Marxist term for the working class.

90

Relative deprivation theory

A sociological term that indicates the lack of human needs vis-à-vis other members of a particular society.

91

Revolutionary United Front (RUF)

A rebel movement that arose in Sierra Leone in 1991. Led by Foday Sankoh, RUF forces were responsible for widespread human rights abuses and atrocities.

92

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)

A Marxist insur-gent movement in Peru. Founded and led by former philoso-phy professor Abimael Guzmán, the group regularly engaged in terrorism.

93

Stockholm syndrome

A psychological condition in which hostages begin to identify and sympathize with their captors.

94

Structural theory

A theory used in many disciplines to identify social conditions (structures) that affect group access to services, equal rights, civil protections, freedom, or other quality-of-life measures.

95

Utopia

An ideal society.

96

Viet Cong

The name given by the United States and its non-communist South Vietnamese allies to South Vietnamese communist insurgents.

97

Groundbreaking article on Terrorism: Crenshaw “The causes of terrorism”

- preconditions (long-term background and structure)
-precipitants (immediate triggers)
* trigger for violence
* Charismatic leader
* provocative events: invasion, lost war, other major political change
Definition—- types—- ideological/historical perspectives—- causes —- counterterrorism

Causes

Collective violence
Attack citizens
Failure of ruling classes to rule
Radicalized to de-radicalized

98

Political/Sociologically Explanations of Terrorism

Intergroup Conflict and Collective Violence
— Theoretical foundations of sociological explanations
- Structural theory [state]
- Relative deprivation (absolute deprivation) [us v them]

99

Psychological Explanations of Terrorism

Rational decision-making process
* International relations term (getting what you want, not actually rational)

— Group level
* people need to belong to a group. Humans are inherently social animals

— Individual level
* Mental Health
- Not psychopaths/abnormal
- social alienation

100

Criminological Explanations of Terrorism

— Differential association theory (family and friends see crime as acceptable, you see it as acceptable.
—- Anomie and strain of theories
* social instability due to breakdown of standards and values *
at the individual level: alienation, lack of purpose

*Routine activities theory*- if certain conditions exist, people will take advantage of them. Motivated offenders. There are benefits of being a criminal.
Opportunity, readily available opportunity. Little in the way of social protection to stop a terrorist.

101

Radical Criminology

— Structural (people in power label what’s criminal)
* critical approach: marxist theory. No choice but to become criminal and rise up against society *

102

Making Revolution: Acts of Political Will

— An act of political will is an effort to force change
— Terrorism is simply a tool, an option, selected by members of the political fringe to achieve a goal (rational decision making process)
— People’s war: it was applied to the Chinese Revolution

103

Summary of all English literature from background factors to more immediate causes
(14 causes on blackboard) POTENTIAL CAUSES

— lack of democracy, civil liberties and the rule of law (structural)
— failed or weak states (structural)
— rapid modernization (economics, secular v religious)
— extremist ideologies
— historical antecedents of political violence, civil wars, revolutions, dictatorships or occupations (living up to the expectation of forefathers)
— hegemony (dominance) and inequality of power
— illegitimate or corrupt governments
— powerful external actors upholding illegitimate governments
— repression by foreign occupation or by colonial powers
— the experience of discrimination on the basis of ethnic or religious origin
— failure or unwillingness by the state to integrate dissent groups or emerging social classes/ groups
— the experience of social injustice
— the presence of charismatic ideological leaders
— triggering events

104

Groundbreaking article on Terrorism: Crenshaw “The causes of terrorism”

- preconditions (long-term background and structure)
-precipitants (immediate triggers)
* trigger for violence
* Charismatic leader
* provocative events: invasion, lost war, other major political change

105

Political/Sociologically Explanations of Terrorism

Intergroup Conflict and Collective Violence
— Theoretical foundations of sociological explanations
- Structural theory [state]
- Relative deprivation (absolute deprivation) [us v them]

106

Psychological Explanations of Terrorism

—- Rational decision-making process
* International relations term (getting what you want, not actually rational)

— Group level
* people need to belong to a group. Humans are inherently social animals

— Individual level
* Mental Health
- Not psychopaths/abnormal
- social alienation

107

Criminological Explanations of Terrorism

— Differential association theory (family and friends see crime as acceptable, you see it as acceptable.
—- Anomie and strain of theories
* social instability due to breakdown of standards and values *
at the individual level: alienation, lack of purpose

*Routine activities theory*- if certain conditions exist, people will take advantage of them. Motivated offenders. There are benefits of being a criminal.
Opportunity, readily available opportunity. Little in the way of social protection to stop a terrorist.

Radical Criminology
— Structural (people in power label what’s criminal)
* critical approach: marxist theory. No choice but to become criminal and rise up
against society *

108

Making Revolution: Acts of Political Will

— An act of political will is an effort to force change
— Terrorism is simply a tool, an option, selected by members of the political fringe to
achieve a goal (rational decision making process)
— People’s war: it was applied to the Chinese Revolution

109

Making a Revolution Continued

— Perceptional and cultural disconnect
Do we understand the motivation of the terrorists? (Understand the reasoning
before we counter it.)
Rooted in the political environment that gave rise to the new era of terrorism
How is the behavior of the West perceived around the world?

110

Codes of self sacrifice

— the codes accept a basic tritha dn applies it to everyday life
— the truth usually has a religious, ethno-national, or ideologiCAL FOUNDATION
— CODES OF SELF-SACRIFICE EXPLAIN MUCH TERRORIST BEHAVIOR
3 CAUSES
Injustice
Rational decision making
Good v evil

111

Simplified Definitions of Good and Evil

— revolutionaries universally conclude that their cause is honorable. US V THEM. Their methods are justifiable and their opponents are representations of implacable evil.
— opponents must be simply evil

112

Explain the importance of identifying the common characteristics of extremism and understanding the world view of extremist adherents.

It is important to identify the common characteristics of extremism because extremism is the precursor to terrorism itself. The common characteristics of violent extremists include intolerance, moral absolutes, broad conclusions, and a new language and conspiratorial beliefs.

Since terrorist see themselves as protectors of the truth and an heir to their agency, their world view supports this ongoing fight between the supernatural forces of good and evil secret and quasi mystical forces are against them and these forces are the cause of worldwide calamities.

113

Demonstrate knowledge of the common features of formal definitions of terrorism.

There's the use of illegal force, subnational actors, unconventional methods, political motives, attacks against soft targets, and act aims at purposefully

114

Discuss whether violence should be classified as terrorism by recognizing the contextual perspectives of perpetrators and participants in terrorist environments.

Violence should be classified as terrorism when the violence comes from a place of political gain, and acts are aimed at purposefully affecting a specific audience.

"a strategy of violence designed to promote desired out comes by instilling fear in the public at large"
"the use or threatened use of force designed to bring about political change"

115

Demonstrate knowledge of the historical context of modern terrorist violence.

Ancient terrorism (tyrannicide) and political assassinations. Roman age (crucifixion) the ancient and Middle East (sicarri (daggers) and zealots) Dark ages (brutal warfare and religion were players) French Revolution (prelude to modern terrorism)

116

Understand the classical ideological continuum.

far left (communism) left (socialism) moderate right (conservative) far right (fascism)

117

Classify some ideologies and activism as left-wing phenomena.

Extreme marxist ideologies
anarchism
Property is theft!

118

Explain the attributes and behavior of left-wing terrorism.

Uses class warfare or ethnographies-nationalist liberation to justify political violence. The key justification is the notion of the group as a righteous champion of the poor.

119

Classify some activism and extremism as right-wing phenomena.

Europe: German People's Union, National Front in France.
America: Tea Party,

120

Explain the attributes and behavior of right-wing terrorism.

Strong adherence to social order and traditional values. racial or ethnic dimension is usually present.
fascism
hitler/mussolini

**outside the spectrum** just war which legitimized conflict

121

Demonstrate the ability to interpret revolutionary ideologies and cultural factors to assess whether the use of political violence is a strategic choice.

on the individual level, their goals and a cost analysis benefit, the psychological motivation stems from the terrorists personal dissatisfaction with their life accomplishments, the cultural determination is the perception of outsiders and the anticipation of their three to ethnic group survival.

on the group level, political activism plays a part, as well as dramatic events.

122

Apply sociological theories of intergroup conflict and collective violence to posit explanations for political violence.

The structural theory of sociology proposes that social conditions affect group access to services, equal rights, civil protections, and other quality of life measurements.
Relative deprivation theory and total deprivation are seen as explanations to political violence

123

Apply criminological theories of criminality to posit explanations for political violence.

Differential association theory: law abiding people learn behavior from others. all people have the same learning process. Also applies to growing up in the environment.

Anomie and strain theories: availability of goals and means and racing said goals and means (anomie) but not all People have equal access (strain)

Routine Activity theory: political extremism and criminal behavior require the convergence of three societal elements. There is a steady flow of motivated offenders, the ready availability of attractive victims and targets of opportunity, and the presence, or lack thereof, of social guardians.

Radical Criminology: delinquency and criminality were caused by society's inequitable ideological, political and sociological makeup

124


Apply psychological theories of group- and individual-level dynamics to posit explanations for political violence.

Group: "the pronounced need to belong to a group" a self self-perpetrating cycle of radicalization and political violence because the goal is never achievable.

Individual:significant events in individuals lives , but there is not a pattern of psychopathy among terrorists. No psychological commonalities.

125

Interpret justifications for political violence, as reported by extremists, within the context of moral reasoning.

act of political will
a choice, rational decision to adopt specific tactics and methodologies to defeat an adversary.
The peoples war
seeking utopia
codes of self sacrifice
simplified definitions of good and evil

126

Explain the perspectives of the media and governments.

free press, to have or not to have?
Information is power

127

Understand the role of the media.

organizations, movements, and governments use propaganda to spread through the media to invent a new truth.

128

Describe the conflict for manipulating the “spin” of media reporting.

the free press enjoys the liberty to apply whatever media spin is deemed desirable.

129

Discuss issues arising from the debate concerning media regulation.

Critics argue that the ability of the mass media to reach large audiences, when combined with the first two factors, can lead to realignments in the political environment.

What are the counterpoints to these criticisms?–“Full exposure of terrorism and the terrorists grievances should be encouraged” so as to encourage “public understanding of terrorism and reinforce public hostility toward terrorists”

130

Achille Lauro

A cruise ship that was hijacked by members of the Palestine Liberation Front. During the incident, the terrorists murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish American.

131

Authoritarian regimes

Governments that practice strict control over public and political institutions and emphasize pub-lic order. The media and other public information outlets are regulated and censored by the government. Some authoritarian regimes have democratic institutions.

132

Contagion effect

Copycat terrorism in which terrorists imitate each other’s behavior and tactics. This theory is still debated.

133

Cult of personality

The glorification of a single strong national leader and political regime.

134

Euphemistic language

Code words used by all participants in a terrorist environment to describe other participants and their behavior.

135

Force multiplier

Also known as force multiplication. An attri-bute or combination of attributes that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of a movement or fighting group.

136

Free press

A media environment in which few official restric-tions are placed on reporting the news. The free press relies on ethical and professional standards of behavior to regulate report-ing practices.

137

Information is power

A political and popular concept that the control of the dissemination of information, especially through media outlets, enhances the power of the controlling interest.

138

Journalistic self-regulation

The theoretical practice of ethical reporting among members of the press.

139

Labeling

Attaching euphemistic terms to the participants in a terrorist environment.

140

Mass communications

The technological ability to convey information to a large number of people. It includes technologies that allow considerable amounts of information to be communicated through printed material, audio broadcasts, video broad-casts, and expanding technologies such as the Internet.

141

Media as a weapon

For terrorists and other extremists, information can be wielded as a weapon of war. Because symbolism is at the center of most terrorist incidents, the media are explicitly identified by terrorists as potential supplements to their arsenal.

142

Media gatekeeping

Similar to journalistic self-regulation. The theoretical practice of ethical self-regulation by members of the free press.

143

Media spin

The media’s inclusion of subjective and opinion-ated interpretations when reporting the facts.

144

Media-oriented terrorism

Acts of terrorism carried out to attract and manipulate media coverage.

145

New Media

The use of existing technologies and alternative broadcasting formats to analyze and disseminate information. These formats include talk-show models, tabloid styles, celeb-rity status for hosts, and blatant entertainment spins. Strong and opinionated political or social commentary also makes up a sig-nificant portion of New Media content.

Alternative broadcasting formats. Social media, alternative broadcasting formats, electronic town halls,

146

News scoop

Media competition to preempt competitors’ stories by being the first to report breaking news.

147

News triage

The decision-making process within the media that determines what news to report and how to report it.

148

Official Secrets Act

An act in Great Britain that permit-ted the prosecution of individuals for the reporting of informa-tion that was deemed to endanger the security of the British government.

149

State-regulated press

State-regulated media exist in envi-ronments where the state routinely intervenes in the reporting of information by the press. This can occur in societies that other-wise have a measure of democratic freedoms as well as in totali-tarian societies.

150

Totalitarian regimes

Governments that practice total control over public and political institutions. The media and other public information outlets are completely controlled.

151

Extremism, as a catalyst for terrorist behavior, is more a matter of style or expression than thought or opinion.
True

False

True

152

Terrorist targeting that has the most symbolic impact and always involves attacks on property rather than people.
T F

False

153

Indiscriminate force is the application of force against a target without attempting to limit the level of force or the degree of the destruction of the target.

T F

True

154

The so-called Dirty War occurred from 1976 to 1983 in Angola.

T F

False

155

The term combatants includes civilians who have no connection to military or other security forces.

T F

False

156

Which of the following characteristics is used by extremists to help make the distinction between good and evil?


broad conclusions


moral absolutes

new language and conspiratorial beliefs

intolerance

Moral absolutes

157

Terrorism is often the precursor to extremism.
T F

False

158

Which of the following includes civilians who have no connection to military or other security forces?

combatants

noncombatants

unlawful combatants

noncombatants

159

Extra Credit

Spain
it depends

160

Extremism, as a catalyst for terrorist behavior, is more an issue of style than of content.

T F

True

161

Extremism is primarily characterized by intolerance for opposing interests and divergent opinions.

T F

True

162

Which of the following were created to demonize the enemy and set the terrorists apart from those not part of their belief system?


broad conclusions

moral absolutes

new language and conspiratorial beliefs

intolerance

New language and conspiratorial beliefs

163

Who is the scholar who formally defined terrorism as, among other things, instilling fear in the public at large?


Walter Laqueur

Walter Reich

Brian Jenkins

Jack Gibbs

Water Reich

164

Alex Schmid’s survey of experts found that there were more than how many different definitions of terrorism?


100

300

500

750

100

165

Who or what was been responsible for many more deaths and much more suffering than terrorism originating in small bands of terrorists?

terrorist gangs

state terrorism

“stateless” international terrorism

attacks using “asymmetrical” methods

State terrorism

166

Which of the following characteristics of extremism is considered to be the hallmark of its belief system and terrorist behavior?

intolerance

moral absolutes

broad conclusions

new language and conspiratorial beliefs

intolerance

167

Who made the statement “One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter”?

George Washington

Wu Ch’i

Barry Goldwater

unknown

unknown

168

There is little to no agreement on what label to use for behaviors that most people refer to as hate crimes.

True

False

True

169

Generally, what would the fringe left believe what would the fringe right believe

fringe left: class wars and inequality
fringe right: nationalism, racism, ethnocentric

170

which Russian group assisnated the tsar?

the peoples will

171

what in general is leftist extremism what in general is rightist extremism

Left: Marxism
Right: fascism

172

No matter how offensive or reprehensible political extremism is, unless it advocates violent action or revolution, it falls short of terrorism.

True

False

True

173

Indiscriminate force is the application of force against a target without attempting to limit the level of force or the degree of destruction of the target.

True

False

True

174

Which of the following elements makes the U.S. State Department’s definition of terrorism most different from that of other government agencies?

political motives

unconventional methods

subnational actors

ideological objectives

subnational actors

175

The common characteristics of violent extremists usually include all BUT which of the following?

intolerance

racism

moral absolutes

broad conclusion

racism

176

Which form of terrorism is best exemplified by Colombia’s FARC or Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers?

state

dissident

religious

criminal

criminal

177

What type of terrorist wages “revolution for revolution’s sake” and has no concrete plan in place for the future?

nihilist dissident

revolutionary vanguard

holy warrior

ethnonationalist/separatist

revolutionary vanguard

178

Which of the following represented a dissident terrorist environment as opposed to a state-sponsored one?

French Revolution

Nazi Germany

Stalinist Russia

French Indochina

French Indochina

179

Which participant in a terrorist environment always sees themselves as a freedom fighter and never a terrorist?

terrorist

supporter

onlooker

target

terrorist

180

Sociological explanations generally hold that terrorism is a product of intergroup conflict that results in collective violence.

True

False

True

181

Which criminological theory holds that terrorism and political extremism are acquired from interacting with other terrorists and extremists?

anomie and strain

routine activity

Radical criminology

differential association

differential association

182

Which terrorist motive most involves the construction of a powerful enemy who is adept at betrayal and deception?

moral conviction

simplified definitions of good and evil

seeking utopia

codes of self-sacrifice

moral convictions

183

The Stockholm syndrome can theoretically take place in 1–2 days.

True

False

False

184

Which criminological theory focuses upon the availability of goals and means for acceptable behavior in society?

anomie and strain

routine activity

radical criminology

differential association

anomie and strain

185

Which statement best summarizes psychological explanations of terrorism?

Many terrorists have flaws in their rational decision-making.

Terrorism is frequently an outcome of some significant personal event.

Natural aggressiveness and action-orientation exist among many terrorists.

There are distinct personality types among terrorists.

Natural aggressiveness and action-orientation exist among many terrorists.

186

Research has found some consistent patterns of psychopathology among terrorists.

True

False

False

187

Routine activity theory stresses the importance of three factors: supply of motivated offenders, targets of opportunity, and what else?

rigid ideologies

ethnonationalist identities

lack of social guardians

socioeconomic inequalities

lack of social guardians

188

Which terrorist motive most involves quasi-mystical and militaristic codes that inculcate a sense of superiority?

moral conviction

simplified definitions of good and evil

seeking utopia

codes of self-sacrifice

codes of self sacrifice

189

What were the journalists called who advanced with the troops during the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?

auxiliaries

confederates

deputized

embedded

embedded

190

A “virtual world” of like-minded extremists thrives on the Internet.

True

False

True

191

Which of the following types of media became the choice for terrorists in the era of cable and digital feeds?

print media

radio

television

the Internet

television

192

Media-oriented terrorism is primarily designed to purposely carry a message to the media and who else?

the government

the general public

foreign policymakers

other terrorists

the general public

193

New media is not particularly reluctant to make admittedly provocative and completely biased statements.

True

False

True

194

Media “scooping” takes place when the ______.

network reruns older newsreels

network provides background stories

viewers call-in and do talk shows

networks are the first to report breaking news

Networks are the first to report breaking news

195

The concept of “media spin” refers to how fast a news item travels through different media.

True

False

False

196

Another word for journalistic self-regulation in a free press society is what?

gatekeeping

majoritarianism

quasi-censorship

subprofessionalism

gatekeeping

197

What is the term for the kind of language that both terrorists and governments use in labeling themselves and their adversaries?

anoplexic

contrarian

euphemistic

neologistic

euphemistic

198

When a terrorist mission fails in its purpose, it can rarely win a propaganda victory in the media.

True
False

False

199

Effective delivery of a terrorist message which requires the message be orderly as opposed to garbled or chaotic is called what?
efficiency

synergism

mediated terrorism

information as power

efficiency

200

What kind of mass communication would convey a terrorists message

Audio printed material video internet social media

201

For terrorists, effect and timeliness are critical to mass communication

Get as many people to hear it as possible, they can have the symbolism and fear that they want to create, make sure someone does not steal your thunder.

202

Reporting Terrorism

Factors that influence reporting
Market competition
Deciding which incidents to report
Deciding how to report incidents
Terrorist-initiated labeling (manifestos, laying claim)


The media has not been consistent about which incidents they report or how they report them

203

List three causes of terrorism

extremism
the three p's according to Crenshaw
preconditions (long-term background and structure)
precipitants (immediate triggers)
provocative events (invasions, political change, war)

204

What kind of mass communication would convey a terrorists message

Audio printed material video internet social media

205

For terrorists, effect and timeliness are critical to mass communication

Get as many people to hear it as possible, they can have the symbolism and fear that they want to create, make sure someone does not steal your thunder.

206

Factors that influence reporting terrorism

Market competition
Deciding which incidents to report
Deciding how to report incidents
Terrorist-initiated labeling (manifestos, laying claim)

207

Price Discussion

Critical Approach
Categories we operate under are given to us by authorities
Mental illness: not terrorism. Political goals: terrorism
Should political goals be the definition of terrorism?
Terrorism and not terrorism shouldn’t be our two definitons, other categories
“categorical myopia”= large loss of life = terrorism

208

Using the media as a weapon

The contagion effect
The theoretical influence of media exposure on the future behavior of other like-minded extremists. “copy cat” “contagion”
The question remains whether or not the media perpetuate terrorism?

209

Boko Haraam case study

How are the criticism and counterpoints of “using the media” reflected in the results of the public opinion surveys re: Book Haram?

Survey the population and see what they think about terrorism
Causes: sympathy for the goals and causes like unemployment (or whatever), by perception, (influences sympathies and justifications, determines counterterrorism), existed, but not a problem, until the government made the problem which causes a lack of trust in the government.