Flashcards in Upper & Lower Resp. Infections Deck (66)
where is the respiratory tract sterile?
below the epiglottis
are there anaerobic bacteria in your URT?
Yes, small niches but numbers are comparable and even more in some places
Higher number of serotypes of strep are more dangerous? which is the most dangerous?
Lower numbers more dangerous: strep '3' is most dangerous
Haemophilus influenza has 6 types: they are:
a,b,c,d,f, non typable
How is Haemophilus influenza typed based on?
What is the most common source of infective endocarditis?
Corynebacterium spp. includes which important disease?
occasional URTI (1-10%) caused by?
Will I get meningitis if the meningococci have capsules?
YES YOU WILL!!
What is P.Jirovecii(carinii) ?
resident yeast-like fungus in latent state in lung
3 examples of viruses that hang around in the nerves/lymph nodes
What is croup?
pertussis infects which part of resp tract?
Where does RSV infect?
upper and lower
What time of the year do you get enterovirus more likely?
What time of the year do you get rhinovirus more likely?
What causes epiglottitis?
Haemophilus Influenzae B
If you have a case of pharyngitis/tonsillitis with no nasal involvement, would you treat with antibiotics despite only 1in 5 cases being bacterial?
Yes you would. Complications from Group A Strep pyogenes are nasty, could lead to rheumatic fever, septicaemia.
What can happen after 48 hours of RSV infection in the respiratory tract?
cilial destruction, secondary commensal bacterial infection
What is a commensal that can cause otitis media?
When you you need to make a laboratory diagnosis?
How to take collect a sample from epiglottitis?
What is herpangina?
painful mouth sores in back of throart caused by Coxsackie A virus
white spots on throat = strep?
Nope. not necessarily, could be hand foot mouth disease (coxsackie A)
Otitis media in Australia when do you treat?
If younger than 2
if older than 2 and lasts for more than 48 hours.
Which URTI is essential to treat?
How to treat Croup if severe?
What does not require antibiotics?
sore throat: pharyngitis
What's a frequent aetiological agent of acute bronchitis?
part of viral URTI
What's a frequent aetiological agent of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis/emphysema?
Why would smokers tend to get acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis/emphysema?
decrease in innate immune system, commensals move in
What population mostly gets bronchiolitis?
Babies/kids in first few years of life
What normally causes bronchiolitis?
What's the theory of RSV?
Mother's RSV antibodies cross placenta, then when baby exposed to RSV, it sets up immune complex inflammation
What causes 80% of community, and 50% of hospital acute bacterial pneumonia?
Which bacteria has the worst prognosis if it's acute bacterial pneumonia?
what vector do you typically get Chlamydophila pneumoiae?
What is 'walking pneumonia'?
milder course, lasts longer, patchy on x-ray
acute bacterial pneumonia severe version presentation?
high fever, consolidated lobe of lung via percussion = dull and opaque on x-ray
What's the most common 'atypical' pneumonia?
Can you treat mycoplasma with penicillin? Why?
Nope. No cell wall for penicillin to act on
What is empyema?
pus in the pleural space
What causes empyema?
What does histoplasma, aspergillus, pneumocystis cause?
what are important underlying illnesses re: pneumonia?
COPD, AIDS, CF
What is legionnaire's pneumophilia? how do they survive and invade us?
live in air conditioning ameoba, hard to grow in lab, they survive in ameobi and then get into our macrophages and survive in us
how is occupation important in pneumonia diagnosis? 4 things:
animals, hides (anthrax spores), air conditioning, soils
Where do you find legionella long-beachy?
potting soil in Australia
What is pleomorphic? example?
takes on different shapes eg. H. influenzae
Lab diagnosis of pneumonia, how should you collect sputum?
proper cough, not just spitting in the cup
When do you use aspiration via bronchoscope?
when do you use a pleural tap?
When to get a lung biopsy?
If it's not responding to initial treatment due to sputum misdirection
Can you diagnose pneumonia in the blood?
Yes, and if it's in the blood and you have pneumonia... it's probably the cause.
When would you use a serological diagnosis of pneumonia?
if difficulty culturing
which organisms would you use a serological diagnosis of pneumonia for?
What causes Q-fever?
coxiella burnettii = same family as ricketsia(typhus) and is an obligate intracellular bactera
Which type pneumophila is 80% cause of pneumonia? how dx?
Type 1. Antigen detection Dx from Urine
What are 'must know' pathogens for Dx of pneumonia?
community acquired MRSA
What are 'should know' pathogens for Dx of pneumonia?
penicillin G resistant S. pneumoniae
What's the best guess 'shotgun' treatment for penumonia?
PEnG/amoxycillin + doxycycline/macrolide
atypical bugs of pneumonia are all susceptible to what?
who is 23 valent polysaccharide for?
Penumococcal vaccines for adults only
Why is 23 valent polysaccharide only for adults?
children can't handle 23 capsular types of pneumococcus, so go with 13
2 examples of specialised vaccines?