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Jason's Respiratory Block > Upper & Lower Resp. Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper & Lower Resp. Infections Deck (66):
1

where is the respiratory tract sterile?

below the epiglottis

2

are there anaerobic bacteria in your URT?

Yes, small niches but numbers are comparable and even more in some places

3

Higher number of serotypes of strep are more dangerous? which is the most dangerous?

Lower numbers more dangerous: strep '3' is most dangerous

4

Haemophilus influenza has 6 types: they are:

a,b,c,d,f, non typable

5

How is Haemophilus influenza typed based on?

capsule

6

What is the most common source of infective endocarditis?

viridans streptococci

7

Corynebacterium spp. includes which important disease?

diphtheria

8

occasional URTI (1-10%) caused by?

strept pyogenes
meningococci

9

Will I get meningitis if the meningococci have capsules?

YES YOU WILL!!

10

What is P.Jirovecii(carinii) ?

resident yeast-like fungus in latent state in lung

11

3 examples of viruses that hang around in the nerves/lymph nodes

CMV
HSV
EBV

12

What is croup?

laryngo-tracheal bronchitis

13

pertussis infects which part of resp tract?

lower

14

Where does RSV infect?

upper and lower

15

What time of the year do you get enterovirus more likely?

summer

16

What time of the year do you get rhinovirus more likely?

winter

17

What causes epiglottitis?

Haemophilus Influenzae B

18

If you have a case of pharyngitis/tonsillitis with no nasal involvement, would you treat with antibiotics despite only 1in 5 cases being bacterial?

Yes you would. Complications from Group A Strep pyogenes are nasty, could lead to rheumatic fever, septicaemia.

19

What can happen after 48 hours of RSV infection in the respiratory tract?

cilial destruction, secondary commensal bacterial infection

20

What is a commensal that can cause otitis media?

Moraxella catarrhalis

21

When you you need to make a laboratory diagnosis?

epiglottitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis

22

How to take collect a sample from epiglottitis?

NOT swab.
Blood culture
X-ray

23

What is herpangina?

painful mouth sores in back of throart caused by Coxsackie A virus

24

white spots on throat = strep?

Nope. not necessarily, could be hand foot mouth disease (coxsackie A)

25

Otitis media in Australia when do you treat?

If younger than 2
if older than 2 and lasts for more than 48 hours.

26

Which URTI is essential to treat?

epiglottitis

27

How to treat Croup if severe?

inhaled steroids

28

What does not require antibiotics?

Common cold
sore throat: pharyngitis
sinusitis
laryngitis
croup
acute bronchitis
bronchiolitis
influenza
SARS/MERS

29

What's a frequent aetiological agent of acute bronchitis?

part of viral URTI

30

What's a frequent aetiological agent of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis/emphysema?

pneumococci/H. influenzae

31

Why would smokers tend to get acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis/emphysema?

decrease in innate immune system, commensals move in

32

What population mostly gets bronchiolitis?

Babies/kids in first few years of life

33

What normally causes bronchiolitis?

RSV

34

What's the theory of RSV?

Mother's RSV antibodies cross placenta, then when baby exposed to RSV, it sets up immune complex inflammation

35

What causes 80% of community, and 50% of hospital acute bacterial pneumonia?

pneumococci

36

Which bacteria has the worst prognosis if it's acute bacterial pneumonia?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

37

what vector do you typically get Chlamydophila pneumoiae?

zoonosis

38

What is 'walking pneumonia'?

milder course, lasts longer, patchy on x-ray

39

acute bacterial pneumonia severe version presentation?

high fever, consolidated lobe of lung via percussion = dull and opaque on x-ray

40

What's the most common 'atypical' pneumonia?

mycoplasma, viruses

41

Can you treat mycoplasma with penicillin? Why?

Nope. No cell wall for penicillin to act on

42

What is empyema?

pus in the pleural space

43

What causes empyema?

staph aureus

44

What does histoplasma, aspergillus, pneumocystis cause?

'other' pneumoniae

45

what are important underlying illnesses re: pneumonia?

COPD, AIDS, CF

46

What is legionnaire's pneumophilia? how do they survive and invade us?

live in air conditioning ameoba, hard to grow in lab, they survive in ameobi and then get into our macrophages and survive in us

47

how is occupation important in pneumonia diagnosis? 4 things:

animals, hides (anthrax spores), air conditioning, soils

48

Where do you find legionella long-beachy?

potting soil in Australia

49

What is pleomorphic? example?

takes on different shapes eg. H. influenzae

50

Lab diagnosis of pneumonia, how should you collect sputum?

proper cough, not just spitting in the cup

51

When do you use aspiration via bronchoscope?

CF

52

when do you use a pleural tap?

empyema

53

When to get a lung biopsy?

If it's not responding to initial treatment due to sputum misdirection

54

Can you diagnose pneumonia in the blood?

Yes, and if it's in the blood and you have pneumonia... it's probably the cause.

55

When would you use a serological diagnosis of pneumonia?

if difficulty culturing

56

which organisms would you use a serological diagnosis of pneumonia for?

mycoplasma pneumoniae
legionella pneumophila
chlamydophila/chlamydia
coxiella burnetii

57

What causes Q-fever?

coxiella burnettii = same family as ricketsia(typhus) and is an obligate intracellular bactera

58

Which type pneumophila is 80% cause of pneumonia? how dx?

Type 1. Antigen detection Dx from Urine

59

What are 'must know' pathogens for Dx of pneumonia?

SARS
MERS
Avian FLU
Legionella
bioterrorism (anthrax/plague)
community acquired MRSA

60

What are 'should know' pathogens for Dx of pneumonia?

penicillin G resistant S. pneumoniae
P. aeruginosa

61

What's the best guess 'shotgun' treatment for penumonia?

PEnG/amoxycillin + doxycycline/macrolide

62

atypical bugs of pneumonia are all susceptible to what?

doxycycline/macrolide

63

who is 23 valent polysaccharide for?

Penumococcal vaccines for adults only

64

Why is 23 valent polysaccharide only for adults?

children can't handle 23 capsular types of pneumococcus, so go with 13

65

2 examples of specialised vaccines?

anthrax
plague

66

Why conjugate vs. polysaccharide vaccine?

conjugate has a polysaccharide antigen attached to a carrier protein to get proper immuno response (memory B)