Upper Extremity/Trunk Flashcards Preview

AA Exam 5 (Final) > Upper Extremity/Trunk > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper Extremity/Trunk Deck (36):
1

Scalenes action? Nerve?

  • laterally flex neck
  • elevate their respective rib
  • spinal nerves C4-C6

2

What emerges between anterior and middle parts of the scalnes?

The brachial plexus

3

What could impair the passage of the brachial plexus?

muscle hypertrophy

4

sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) action? Nerve?

  • sidebending neck/head to same side
  • rotation of head to opposite side
  • accessory nerve

5

  • What are the muscles of mastication?
  • What do the muscles of mastication do?
  • Nerve?

  • large masseter
  • temporalis pterygoid
  • They move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint (close the mouth, clench the teeth)
  • fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal)

6

What is the strongest jaw muscle?

large masseter

7

What does the temporalis muscle do?

assists in elevation of the mandible.

8

What does the pterygoid muscle do?

  • elevate
  • depress, or protract the mandible or slide it from side to side

9

What is lateral excursion?

Movement of the jaw from side to side.

10

What makes Rectus capitis posterior minor so interesting?

Its high density of muscle spindles and its role in proprioception of both the head and cervical spine. Damage may lead to imbalance.

11

What nerve and artery is in the suboccipital triangle that could lead to headaches?

  • suboccipital nerve
  • Vertebral artery

12

Which muscles are in the superficial layer of the back?

  • lats
  • trapezius
  • levator scapulae
  • rhomboids

13

Which muscles are in the intermediate layer of the back?

  • splenius capitis
  • splenius cervicis
  • iliocostalis
  • longissimus
  • spinalis

14

Which muscles are in the deep layers of the back?

transversospinalis

15

What movements does the superficial layer of the back produce?

limb movement

16

What movements does the deep layer of the back produce?

spinal movement and therefore stabilization

17

Posterior serratus superior action?

elevates ribs

18

Posterior serratus inferior action?

depresses ribs

19

  • rotatores brevis and longus action?
    • Bilateral
    • Unilateral 

  • bilateral: extension T-spine
  • unilateral: rotation to opposite side

20

  • multifidus action?
    • bilateral?
    • unilateral?

  • bilateral: extends spine
  • unilateral: flexes spine to same side, rotates to opposite side

21

semispinalis capitis, cervicis, and thoracis action?

  • extends spine and head
  • unilateral: flexes to same side

22

become tight and very painful in FHP

splenius capitis and cervicis

23

splenius capitis and cervicus action?

  • Lateral flexion w/ slight rotation
  • Together head extension

24

Rectus abdominis action? Nerve?

flexes trunk, compresses abdomen thoracic nerve

25

Pyramidalis action? Nerve?

tenses linea alba Subcostal nerve

26

External oblique action? bilateral? unilateral?

unilateral: flexes trunk to same side, rotates trunk to opposite side bilateral: flexes trunk, compresses abdomen -Branches of 8-12 (thoracic) intercostal -iliohypogastric -ilioinguinal

27

Internal oblique action? Nerve?

  • Trunk flexion
  • lateral flexion
  • rotation to the same side
  • thoracic intercostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal

28

Transversus abdominis action? Nerve?

  • unilateral rotates trunk to same side
  • bilateral compresses abdomen
  • thoracic intercostal, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal

29

Explain how the diaphragm works in inspiration:

When it contracts it:

  • pushes downward and spreads out
  • increasing vertical dimension of the chest cavity
  • increases abdominal pressure
  • drives abdominal contents down and out
  • increases the transverse size of the chest cavity
  • pulls the pleura with it
  • lowers pleural pressure
  • alveolar pressure drops
  • air flows into the lungs

30

Explain how the diaphragm works in expiration:

  • relaxes and returns to its equilibrium position
  • diaphragm moves a centimeter or two up and down.

31

Diaphragm during exercise:

  • becomes an active process
  • the abdominal muscles contract to raise abdominal pressure
  • pushes diaphragm upward
  • forces air out of the lungs
  • moves more than 10 cm

32

Diaphragm innervation:

phrenic nerve

33

  • External intercostals action?
  • Inernal intercostals action?

  • External intercostals
    • Inspiration
  • Inernal intercostals
    • interchondral portion: inspiration
    • interosseous portion: forced expiration

34

Muscles of deep inspiration:

  • diaphragm
  • external intercostals
  • interchondral portion of internal intercostals
  • SCM
  • scaleni
  • serratus posterior
  • superior levatores costarum
  • pectoralis minor
  • trapezius (upper fibers)
  • levator scapulae
  • thoracic spine extensors

35

Muscles of forced expiration:

  • interosseous portion of internal intercostals
  • rectus abdominis
  • external and internal oblique abdominis
  • serratus posterior inferior
  • transversus thoracic
  • transverse abdominis
  • quadratus lumborum

36

Suboccipital Triangle muscles:

  • Rectus capitis posterior major
  • Obliquus capitis superior
  • Obliquus capitis inferior