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Flashcards in Upper limb areas Deck (31)
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1

5 areas of the upper limb

  • the axilla
  • the cubital fossa
  • the carpal tunnel
  • the anatomical snuffbox

2

the axilla is the area which

lies underneath the glenohumeral joint--> junction b/w upper limb and thorax

3

the axilla provides a

passageway for neurovascular structures and muscular structures leaving and entering the limb

4

apex border of the axilla

supeeior border of the scapula and psoterior border of the clavicle

5

lateral border of the axilla

intertubercular groove of the humerus

6

medial border of the axilla

serratus anterior and thoracic wall (4 ribs)

7

anterior wall of the axilla

pectoralis major and minor and subclavius muscle

8

how to remeber the contents of the axilla

AABAB

9

Axillary artery and branches

Axillary vein

Brachial plexus

Axiallary lymph nodes

Biceps brachii

 

10

axillary artery and branches

meain artery supplying the upper lim (medial and posteiror parts travel into the axilla

11

axillary vein

main vein draining the upper arm

 

cephalic and basilic

12

passageways exiting the axilla: 3 routes

  1. main routes
  2. quadrangular space
  3. clavicpectoral triangle

13

main route

immediatley inferiorly and laterally into the upper limb

14

quadrangular soace

gap in the posterior wall of the axilla allowing access to the posterior arm and shoulder area

e.g. axillary enrve and posterior circumflex humeral artery

15

clavipectoral triangle

opening in the anteiror wall of the axilla

- cephalic vein enters this way

- medial and alteral pecroral nerve leave

16

cubital fossa

the transition between the anatomical arm and forearm

- depression on the anteriro surface of the elbow joint

17

draw the cubital fossa borders

superior border: imaginary line btw epicondyles

lateral border: medial border of the brachioradialis

medial border: lateral border of the pronator teres

18

content of the cubital fossa (lateral to medial) with pneumonic

Really Need (radial nerve)

Beer To (biceps tendon)

Be At (brachial artery)

My Nicest (median nerve)

 

 

19

the carpal tunnel

narrow passageway found on the anterior portion of the wrist--> Acts as an entrance for sevral tendons and the median nerve

20

borders of the carpal tunnel

carpal arch

flexor retinaculum

21

carpal arch

concave on the palmar side, forming thr base and sides of the carpal tunnel

  • laterally- scaphoid and trapezium
  • medially- hook of hamate and pisiform

22

flexor retinaculum

connective tissue which forms the rood

  • bridges the space between medial and lateral parts of the arch
  • originates: lateral side
  • inserts: medial side

23

contents of the carpal tunnel

9 tendons and the median nerve

24

tendons of the carpal tunnel

  • flexor pollicis longus tendon x 1 (has its own synovial sheath- allows free movement of tendon)
  • flexor digitorum profundus tenond x 4
  • flexor digitorum superificialis tendon x 4
    • all 8 tenodns of the FDP and FDS are surroudned by a single synovial sheath

 

 

25

as the median nerve passes the carpal tunnel it divides into 2 branches

  1. The recurrent branch
  2. palmar digital nerve

26

the recurrent branch of the median nerve

innervates the thenar muscles

27

the palmar digital nerve of the median nerve

sensory innervation to the palmar skin and dorsal nail bed of the lateral 3.5 digits

 

motor innervation to laterla lumbricals

28

the anatomical snuffbox

29

borders of the anatomical snuffbox

ulnar (medial) border: tendon of the extensor pollicis longus

radial (lateral) border: tendons fo the extensor pollicis brevis and longus

proximal border: styloid process of the radius

floor: scaphoid 

Roof: skin

30

scaphoid

beware of scaphoid fracture- avascular necrosis