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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (48):
1

urinary and repro systems come from

intermediate mesoderm

2

paraxial mersoderm gives rise to ____ and now there is _____ between the somites and _____ called _____

somites, mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm, intermediate mesoderm

3

_____ induces kidney forming ability of _____

paraxial mesoderm, intermediate mesoderm

4

3 transcription factors expressed in intermediate mesoderm to drive nephric tubule development

Lim1, Pax2, Pax8

5

Pronephros (2)

less complex nephric tubules developing in the cervical region, atrophy as metanephros develops

6

Mesophros (2)

second generation in the thoraco-lumbar region, atrophy as metanephros develops

7

Metanephros (3)

sacral region, 3rd generation, most functionally capable

8

nephrotomes

cords of cells that grow from parietal wall of the nephrocoele and form PRONEPHRIC TUBULEs

9

At the same time as somite presence,

interediate mesoderm make inner and outer visceral layers. Forms NEPHROCOELE in the middle

10

Pronephric duct

site where distal end of each successive tubule fuses

11

Nephrostome

means for lumen of pronephric tubule (which is continuous with nephrocoele) opens into the coelomic cavity

12

As caudal pronephric tubules form... (3)

fuse with the pronephric duct (promixal parts keep fusing with the one behind it)
pronephric duct grows towards cloaca
becomes canalised

13

Formation of the pronephros (3)

glomeruli come from tufts of capillaries from aorta
tufts invaginate wall of pronephric tubule

has only one tubule at each somite

14

Process of Function (3) of pronephros development

Invaginated tufts become the bowman's capsule and the glomerulus start to filtrate. Filtrate moves to pronephric tubule where absorption occurs. Then filtrate is removed to pronephric duct and then cloaca

15

Uro-genital ridge (3)

post-somite stage
proliferation of intermediate mesoderm in thoraco-lumbar region
projects into peritoneal cavity

16

Pronephric duct and mesonephros (2)

useable in early developing mesonephros and extends to cloaca then
the duct induces the mesonephros to form nephric vesicles which then form mesonephric tubule

17

Mesonephros (4) Functional Development

Bowman's capsule forms the same as pronephros (glomerular tufts push into invaginating mesonephric tubule epithelia). Except this time it is more intimate and is called the Renal Corpuscle

Is large enough to prject into abdominal cavity (pigs) (NOT primates and rodents)

Has multiple mesonephric tubules at each somite

18

Metanephros (3)

Two growths
1. Ureteric bud (outgrowth of mesonephric duct)
2. Blastema = metanephric mass (from urinary ridge)
In the sacral region
Ureteric buds move into the blastema

19

Pelvis of the kidney comes from

dilated portion of the ureteric bud

20

Collecting ducts (2)

come from branching of ureteric bud
induce metanephric tissue to give rise to metanephric tubules

21

Blastema, cyclic interaction (2)

mesenchyme and is required for ureteric bud formation
If the mesenchyme does not have ureteric bud, it dies as well.

22

Mature nephrons appear ....

deeper in the kidney

23

Carnivores have _____ nephrons and ruminants have ______ nephrons

500,000, 3-4 million

24

Wnt 4 (2)

Secreted from tubule
drives full nephron development after effects of Wnt 6 and 9b

25

Wnt 6 and 9b

induce the collecting tubule to make tubulo-epithelium

26

Mesenchyme (2 genes to do...)

RA = retinoic acid
GDNF = Glial-derived neurotrophic factor

stimulate branching

27

Comma shape

primitive glomerulus with vascular space in the middle.
Tubule development circulates and makes glomerulus with podocytes (from epithelia) on the visceral side.

28

VEGF (name and function)

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
secreted by podocytes causing capillaries to branch

29

Effects of missing GDNF

1 copy - very primitive development of ureteric duct
2 copies - ureteric duct doesn't develop from the nephric duct

30

Why final kidney is around lumbar vertebra (left is lagging) (2)

metanephros moves from pelvis to lumbar
(will end dorsal to degenerating kidney)
The right moves more forward except for pigs

31

Renal lobe

medullary pyramid with cortical covering

32

Variations in kidney organization

differences in the branching of ureteric bud and nephrons around those branches

33

Cloaca (4 - general things)

Endodermal
End of hind gut
Also base of allantois (which becomes base of urogenital sinus
Closed by Cloacal Membrane

34

Perineal body (3)

between the urogenital membrane and anal membrane, seperated by the urorectal septum, attachment of fascia and muscles in the region

35

Urorectal septum (3)

grows towards the cloacal membrane, makes rectal and urogenital sini, Mesoderm

36

Bladder

develops after cloacal partitioning, in the pelvic region (allantois, urachus, bladder, urethra and ureter)

37

Urogenital sinus (2)

is the allantois, distal part of this will form the urachus

38

Urachus goes to form the ...

umbilical ligament

39

Bladder development (4)

from endoderm, Incorporates the mesonephric and ureteric ducts (these are kind of together at this point), These 2 seperate (mesonephric intitally above the ureteric), The ureteric buds move laterally and anteriorly and open into the bladder (it looks like the mesonephric ducts wrap above and back around

40

Trigone of the bladder (2)

triangle between the two ureters and where the mesonephric duct goes, Mesonephric ducts essentially move posteriorly along with the growth of the bladder)

41

Renal Agenesis (5)

unilateral or bilateral, common in pigs and beagles, Ureteric buds don't develop, So no induction by metanephric mass to make renal tubules, When unilateral, the other hypertrophies

42

Renal Hypoplasia (3)

small kidneys from immature glomeruli and tubules. , Unilateral and bilateral, Common in breeds of dogs

43

migration defects (3)

Common - leaves pelvic cavity, Crossed ectopia - both on one side, usually not noticeable but can have chronic infections

44

Horse-shoe kidney (3)

Kidneys fuse at inferior pole, may cause pain and obstruct ureters, Possible problem when moving from pelvic to lumbar region

45

Polycystic kidney (2)

enlarged from cysts (urine in isolated ducts), developing nephrons don't fuse with collecting ducts

46

Those affected by polycystic kidney (4)

Common in Beagles, Bull terriers, west highland white terrier, hereditary in pigs, persian and long-haired cats, rare in horses and sheep

47

Ectopic ureters (4)

attaching to urethra rather than bladder is common, always urinating, Unilateral (occurs 50% on either side), bilateral (occurs 25% of cases), Metanephric duct system did not develop properly

48

Urachral remnants (bladder) (3)

patent urachus (incomplete closure), seen with 1)incontinence, 2) scalding of abdomen, 3) frequent bacterial urinary tract infections