Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Module II > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (44):
1

Function of Urinary System

Conserve body fluid and electrolytes and remove waste

2

Components of Urinary System (4)

Kidney - produce urine as a filtrate of blood
Ureter - connect kidney to bladder
Bladder - urine storage
Urethra- deliver urine to outside body

3

Renal Corpuscle

Contain glomerulas surrounded by bowmans capsule

4

Nephron

Structural and functional unit of kidney
has renal corpuscle series of tubular sections collecting tubules

5

Ultrafiltrate

filtered stuff before modification

6

Filtrate

substance during modification in the system

7

urine

filtered substance of the kidney after modification

8

Hilum of the Kidney

Concave media lindentation where the nerves and vessels enter and exit

9

Ureter

Expands at hilum forming renal pelvis

10

Cortex of Kidney and Medulla (which is outside and inside)

Outer cortex and inner medulla

11

Medullary Pyramids

6-18 in medulla. These cups filter to the minor calyx

12

Path of the filter to the urethra

Goes from minor calyx to the major calyx and then renal pelvis and then to the ureter

13

Minor Calyx

surrounds the entire medullary pyrimids, collecting ducts empty in to this

14

What is the epithelium type

Transitional epithleium starts and runs to the ureter from the minor calyx

15

Renal Papilla

Apex top of pyramid

16

Cortical (Renal) Columns

Portions seperating neighboring pyramids

17

Cortical Arch

Cortex base at each pyramid

18

Renal Lobe

Each pyramid and its arch and sides divedes colum in half and divided into lobes

19

medullary rays

contain collecting ducts extending cortex in to medulla
it shows up as the striped banding pattern
it represents the collecting ducts
it is in the pyramids

20

Pic Identification Tips for Cortex

The site of a renal corpuscles means you are in the cortex and she loves this

21

Pic ID tip for Medulla

See al ittle darker stain with no renal corpuscle

22

Blood Supply path for the kidney

Note it goes from the inside to the outside then flows back in
Start with renal artery branch to form segmental arteries give rise to
branched interlober arteries, (between pyramids) these give rise to
arcuate arteries (runs along the arch) these run to
interlober arteries which give rise to
afferent arterioles this goes thorugh the
glomerulus and empties to
efferent arteriole
the efferent arteriole gives rise to either
1) peritubular capillary plexus
2) vasa recta

23

The peritbular capillary plexus

PTCP a capillary bed supplying the cortex with blood

24

The vasa recta

Capillary bed following henles loop in the medulla both cortex and medulla have diff capillary beds

25

Portal System between capillary beds

Links cap bed to cap bed by arteriole

26

glomerulus

Is a part of the renal corpuscle is a bunch of capillaries

27

Bowmens capsule

part of the renal corpuscle, is the surrounding of the glomerulus

28

The layers of Bowmans Capsule

Visceral layer - epithelial are podocytes and this is on the glomerulus
Pariatel Layer - epithelial are squamus and this is the outer area
Urinary Space - is the container for the ultrafiltrate

29

Where does blood flow from bowmans capsule

Travels out the urinary pole (the ultrafiltrate. Enters by the vascular pole

30

The glomerulus Filtration barrier

Capillaries are fenestrated for going
then the renal corpuscle podocytes will cover most of the capillary.
These create slits when they interdigitate.

31

The filtration barrier layers

Pores of fenestrated endothelium
Thick basement membrane fused together of two
Filtration slits of podocytes
This creates the ultrafiltrate

32

Proximal Tubule Two Portions

Convuluted (proximal convuluted tubule)-
Stragith portion - (Pars Recta) -

33

Structure and function of the proximal tubule

Structure - simple cuboidal with microvilli brush border
Funciton - absorb nutrients ions water and release into intersitial

34

Thick Descending Limb

From the proximal tubule it enters the medulla
Becomes simple squamous - is the thing region descening
the loops then become the thin adcending limb

35

Thing Ascending limb- Thick ascening limb

once the descending limb loops around it stays thin and then becomes thick
This thick though does not have a brush border

36

Loop of Henle

Is this thing that reaches the medulla and has the thick and the thin parts

37

Distal convuluted Tubule

Once enters the cortex the thick ascending it has cuboidal and microvilli (less microbilli)
becomes cuboidal again
no bursh border because less microvilli

38

JGA (function)

is a special structure of the distal convuluted tubule.

39

what are the three JGA components

MAcula densa - dark spot, columnar cells right next to vascular pole of the Glomerulus
Juxta Glomerulus cells - modified smooth muscle in tunica media of afferant and efferent arterioles. the granules are contain renin
Mesangial Cells - adjust to environment and between the afferent and efferent arterioles

Remember that the JGA buts up against the glomerulus

40

Collecting tubules and ducts

DCT becomes collecting ducts
modify filtrate toward minor calyces
tip of duct is renal papilla
then we have tall columnar cells
It starts off as simple cubiodal and gets taller

41

The two types of cells in the collecting tubule

Light cells - principle
Dark cells- have mitochondria to pump acid base stuff

42

Ureter (Layers with types)

urine from kindey to bladder
Mucosa - we see transitional epithelium. Then we see lamina propria
Then we see muscularis mucosa smooth musscle to contract
There is a valve at the bottom

43

Urinary Bladder (the Layers also)

Storage part transitional become flat when distendeted
Have 3 muscular layers
have an adventitia and serosa - connnective tissue with elastic fibers

44

Urethra

diff for male and female. Males is 3 segments and through prostate