Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (35):
Involuntary urination by a child older than the age of 4. Caused by developmental delay, sleep pattern, etc
Increased inthrall abdominal pressure forces urine through sphincter (coughing, laughing, lifting, multiple pregnancies). More common in women.
Elevated serum urea (BUN) and serum creatinine leaves are caused by what?
decreased GFR due to increased concentration (may lead to metabolic acidosis)
This indicated decreased erythropoietin secretion and/or bone marrow depression
Normal specific gravity value
leakage of albumin or mixed plasma into filtrate. Occurs when glomerulus is inflamed (glomerulonephritis)
Proteinuria and albuminuria (Increased protein)
Normal BUN value
UTI in older men is caused by?
Prostatic hypertrophy and prostatitis, urine retention.
What does prerenal issues in acute kidney injury do to the GFR?
GFR decreases because of the decrease in filtration pressure.
Most common cause of intrarenal failure
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Cause of post renal failure
Urinary tract obstructions that affect the kidneys bilaterally- BPH, calculi, and tumors
Urolithiasis (Calculi) is due to???(4)
high sodium intake
low fluid intake
Type of pain associated with Urolithiasis
Renal Colic- caused by obstruction of the ureter.
-Intense flank pain until stone is passes
-cool moist skin, rapid pulse, nausea
If the cause of hydronephrosis is not removed, what is the complication?
chronic renal failure from ischemia and necrosis in the compressed area.
An inflammatory response in the glomeruli, likely post strep infection. If severe- decreased GFR and urine becomes dark and cloudy due to blood and protein leakage.
A decreased GRF could cause
This inflammatory disorder is similar to glomerulonephritis, is characterized by an abnormality in glomerular capillaries (increased permeability due to large amounts of plasma proteins escaping into filtrate)
Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by hypoalbuminemia (edema) which can cause what?
-decreased blood volume (increases aldosterone)
-BP may remain normal or may be low due to fluid shifting out of capsular spaces
Prediposing factors to renal cell carcinoma
In this type of cancer, chemotherapy is not used because the tumor is radioresistant
Renal cell carcinoma
Early signs of bladder cancer (3)
Predisposing factors to bladder cancer
working with chemicals
Outcomes of adult polycystic kidney
-gradual enlargement of kidneys
-compression and destruction of kidney tissue
-chronic renal failure
Blood tests will reveal what to determine acute renal failure
-elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels
-very low GRF
Systemic disorders that may result in chronic renal failure
Overall, what does chronic renal failure cause?
fluid congestion and ischemia
Renal insufficiency stage is characterized by?
-moderately decreased GFR (retention of fluid)
-temporary increase in output due to loss of tubular functioning
Three A's of end-stage renal failure
Azotemia, Anemia, and Acidosis
End stage renal failure is characterized by
-Very low GFR
Bone marrow depression and impaired cell function due to increased waste, limited protein intake and low erythropoietin are early signs of what?
Complete renal failure
Complete renal failure is characterized by
-uremic frost on skin
-CHF & dysrhythmias from potassium imbalance
The type of dialysis that requires a functioning vascular system (no diabetes or HTN)
Dialysis that is 3-4x per week lasting 3-4 hours.
Dialysis that is multiple times during the day, is more effective and less wear on the patient.