Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Pathopharmacology 2 > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (35):
1

Involuntary urination by a child older than the age of 4. Caused by developmental delay, sleep pattern, etc

Enuresis

2

Increased inthrall abdominal pressure forces urine through sphincter (coughing, laughing, lifting, multiple pregnancies). More common in women.

Stress Incontinence

3

Elevated serum urea (BUN) and serum creatinine leaves are caused by what?

decreased GFR due to increased concentration (may lead to metabolic acidosis)

4

This indicated decreased erythropoietin secretion and/or bone marrow depression

Anemia

5

Normal specific gravity value

1.010-1.050

6

leakage of albumin or mixed plasma into filtrate. Occurs when glomerulus is inflamed (glomerulonephritis)

Proteinuria and albuminuria (Increased protein)

7

Normal BUN value

10-20

8

UTI in older men is caused by?

Prostatic hypertrophy and prostatitis, urine retention.

9

What does prerenal issues in acute kidney injury do to the GFR?

GFR decreases because of the decrease in filtration pressure.

10

Most common cause of intrarenal failure

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

11

Cause of post renal failure

Urinary tract obstructions that affect the kidneys bilaterally- BPH, calculi, and tumors

12

Urolithiasis (Calculi) is due to???(4)

pH
high sodium intake
low fluid intake
infection

13

Type of pain associated with Urolithiasis

Renal Colic- caused by obstruction of the ureter.
-Intense flank pain until stone is passes
-cool moist skin, rapid pulse, nausea

14

If the cause of hydronephrosis is not removed, what is the complication?

chronic renal failure from ischemia and necrosis in the compressed area.

15

An inflammatory response in the glomeruli, likely post strep infection. If severe- decreased GFR and urine becomes dark and cloudy due to blood and protein leakage.

Glomerulonephritis

16

A decreased GRF could cause

metabolic acidosis

17

This inflammatory disorder is similar to glomerulonephritis, is characterized by an abnormality in glomerular capillaries (increased permeability due to large amounts of plasma proteins escaping into filtrate)

Nephrotic Syndrome

18

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by hypoalbuminemia (edema) which can cause what?

-decreased blood volume (increases aldosterone)
-BP may remain normal or may be low due to fluid shifting out of capsular spaces

19

Prediposing factors to renal cell carcinoma

men
smoking

20

In this type of cancer, chemotherapy is not used because the tumor is radioresistant

Renal cell carcinoma

21

Early signs of bladder cancer (3)

Microscopic hematuria
dysuria
infection

22

Predisposing factors to bladder cancer

working with chemicals
smoking
recurrent infections
narcotics

23

Outcomes of adult polycystic kidney

-gradual enlargement of kidneys
-compression and destruction of kidney tissue
-chronic renal failure

24

Blood tests will reveal what to determine acute renal failure

-elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels
-very low GRF
-metabolic acidosis
-hyperkalemia

25

Systemic disorders that may result in chronic renal failure

diabetes
hypertension

26

Overall, what does chronic renal failure cause?

fluid congestion and ischemia

27

Renal insufficiency stage is characterized by?

-moderately decreased GFR (retention of fluid)
-temporary increase in output due to loss of tubular functioning
-decreased erythropoiesis
-hypertension

28

Three A's of end-stage renal failure

Azotemia, Anemia, and Acidosis

29

End stage renal failure is characterized by

-Three A's
-Very low GFR
-marked oliguria
-anuria

30

Bone marrow depression and impaired cell function due to increased waste, limited protein intake and low erythropoietin are early signs of what?

Complete renal failure

31

Complete renal failure is characterized by

-uremic frost on skin
-peripheral neuropathy
-CHF & dysrhythmias from potassium imbalance
-systemic infections

32

The type of dialysis that requires a functioning vascular system (no diabetes or HTN)

Peritoneal Dialysis

33

Dialysis that is 3-4x per week lasting 3-4 hours.

Hemodialysis

34

Dialysis that is multiple times during the day, is more effective and less wear on the patient.

Perioneal Dialysis

35

Major complication of peritoneal dialysis

Infection (peritonitis) & is hard to treat