Urogenital system I and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urogenital system I and 2 Deck (45):
1

the kidney parenchymal tissue comes from the ___

metanephric blastema

2

oligohydramnios

too little fluid inside the uterus (amniotic)

the kidneys aren't producing urine

3

bilateral renal agenesis is ____ compatible with life

not

4

pulmonary hypoplasia

the lungs don't develop completely because there wasn't enough fluid

5

unilateral renal agenesis is ____ compatible with life

still

6

what causes a unilateral renal agenesis?

abnormality of ureteral bud, not metanephros (kidney parenchyma)

7

what is the most common fusion anomaly?

horseshoe kidney

8

multicystic dysplastic kidney

the kidney parenchyma doesn't form properly and is replaced with irregular cysts, most common cause of abdominal mass in infants

9

should you operate on a multicystic dysplastic kidney?

no, they tend to involute throughout childhood

10

antenatal hydronephrosis

dilation of the collecting system of the kidney

11

ureteropelvic junction obstruction

a relative narrowing of the proximal ureter, impeding drainage

12

primary vesicoureteral reflux

a congenital, abnormal retrograde flow of urine from bladder to ureter (and kidney in higher grade)

13

what causes a primary vesicoureteral reflux?

an inadequate length of submucosal ureteric tunnel (doesn't compress the tunnel, just flows back up)

14

the difference between a complete and incomplete duplication is that in an incomplete duplication the ureters ____

fuse

15

ectopic ureter

ureter inserts into the wrong place

16

ureterocoele

cystic dilation of the terminal ureter due to persistence of Chwalle's membrane

17

Weigert Meyer Law

lower pole ureter empties into the bladder superiorly and laterally- associated with reflux.

upper pole ureter empties into the bladder inferiorly and medially- associated with obstruction

18

posterior urethral valves

an obstructing membrane in the posterior male urethra as a result of abnormal in utero development

19

hypospadius

abnormally proximal ventral urethral meatus

20

cryptorchidism

undescended testes

21

why fix cryptorchidism?

allows surveillance for malignancy 

less prone to trauma

may enhance fertility potential

22

sexual differentiation is bi-potential until ___

6 weeks

23

in the female, the glans becomes the ___

clitoris

24

in the female, the scrotal folds become the

labia majora

25

in the female, the urethra that doesn't unzip all the way becomes the

labia minora

26

in females, pseudohermaphroditism is caused by

exogenous androgens in pregnancy

21 hydroxylase deficiency

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

27

in males, pseudo-hermaphroditism is caused by

disorders of testosterone synthesis

androgen receptor insensitivity

5-alpha reductase deficiency

28

ovotestes

have both testicular tissue with seminiferous tubules and ovarian tissue with follicles

29

mixed gonadal dysgenesis

mosaic 

undescended testicles

streak gonad contralaterally

some Mullein duct remnants

incomplete virilization

30

Wilm's Tumor

  • a malignant childhood renal tumor arising from renal blastema containing various stages of normal renal development histologically
  • most common solid abdominal tumor of childhood

31

Wilm's tumor is associated with:

cryptorchidism 

renal anomalies

hemi-hypertrophy

aniridia

hypospadias

32

Which cells make testosterone? 

Leydig cells of the testes 

33

5 alpha-reductase

converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

34

In the presence of testosterone from leydig cells, mesonephric/wolffian duct becomes what? 

Ductus deferens 

epididymis 

seminal vesicle

35

What causes degeneration of paramesonephric duct?

paramesonephric = mullerian 

caused by Mullerian inhibiting substance secreted from sertoli cells

36

PGC's give rise to these cells in males: ____

these in females: ____

spermatogonia (M)

oogonia (F)

37

Genital ridges give rise to these in males _____

these in females____

Males: leydig, sertoli, peritubular myoid cells

Females: Theca, Folicular granulosa cells, --

38

mesonephros give rise to ___ in males 

___ in females 

Males: sertoli, leydig, Rete testes, vascular endothelial cells

Females: folicular granulosatheca, Rete ovaries, ---

39

Which indifferent structure gives rise to seminiferous tubules (sertoli cells)? What is the female homolog? 

Sex cords --> Semineferous tubules 

--> folicular ( granulosa) cells 

40

Mesonephric duct differentiates into ___ in males and ___ in females 

Male: appendix of epididymis, epididymal duct, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicles 

Female: appendic of ovaries, gaertner's duct

41

round ligament of ovaries homologous to ___

gubernaculum testes 

42

paramesonephric gives rise to ___ in male, ___ in female

Male: appendix of testes, prostate uticle 

Female: uterine tube, uterus, upper vagina 

43

Lower part of urogenital sinus (difinative) gives rise to ___ in male, ___ in female

male: penile urethra, bulbourethral glands 

female: lower vagina, vaginal vestibule

44

early/upper part of urogenital sinus gives rise to ___ in male, ___ in female

male: urinary bladder, prostatic urethra, prostate gland

female: urinary bladder, urethra, glands of skene 

45

Genital tubercle, folds and swellings give rise to these homologous structures 

  • genital tubercle = Penis----clitoris 
  • genital folds = floor of penile urethra---labia minora
  • genital swellings = scrotum----labia majora