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Flashcards in Urolithiasis Deck (10):
1

what is urolithiasis

stone disease in the urinary tract

2

ratio of men to women who get urolithiasis

M:F 2:1

3

where can you get the stones

upper urinary tract (renal stones, ureteric stones)
lower urinary tract (bladder, prostatic, urethral stones)

4

cause urolithiasis

anatomical - congenital (horseshoe, spina bifida) or acquired (obstruction, trauma, reflux)
urinary factors - dehydration, calcium / urate / crystine, metastable urine
infection

5

pathogenesis urolithiasis

nucleation theory - stones form from crystals in supersaturated urine
80% are calcium based - oxalate and phosphate
10% are uric acid

6

prevention of stones

overhydration
low sodium diet
normal dietary intake
healthy protein intake
reduce BMI
active lifestyle

7

symptoms urolithiasis

asymptomatic
loin pain
renal colic
UTI symptoms - dysuria, urgency, frequency
recurrent UTIs
haematuria

8

what is "renal" colic

pain radiates from upper urinary tract obstruction
Site - unilateral loin pain
Onset - rapid
Character - unable to get comfortable - writhing
Radiation - radiates to groin and ipsilateral labia / testes
Associated features - nausea/ vomiting
Timing - spasmodic / colicky
Exacerbating - worse w fluid loading
Severity - classically severe 12/10 - worse than labour

9

investigation renal colic

ABC & analgesia
urinalysis
FBC, U+E, calcium, uric acid

10

rx kidney stones

conservative if small, safe location, asymptomatic, static size
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) - uses acoustic pulse shock waves to break the stone up
uteroscopic
percutaneous nephrolithotomy