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National 5: Modern Studies > USA > Flashcards

Flashcards in USA Deck (61):
1

White Population

64%

2

Hispanic Population

16%

3

Black Population

12%

4

API Population

5%

5

Native Population

0.1%

6

Male Population

48%

7

Female Population

52%

8

Push Factor - Poverty

More than 30% of those in Mexico live on less than $5 a day. This, combined with a lack of opportunity cause many to leave

9

Push Factor - War

More than 3.2 million people have left Syria since the war there began

10

Push Factor - Lack of Freedom

In some countries there are few democratic rights. For example, in China people have little freedom of speech

11

Pull Factor - Higher Wages

Minimum wage in USA is $7.25/hour whereas the minimum wage in Mexico is $0.58

12

Pull Factor - Safety

US has a murder rate of 4.5/100,000 which is far lower than countries like Panama with a murder rate 53/100,000

13

Pull Factor - Democracy

Presidential elections every 4 years and congressional elections every 2 years. Eg. Trump elected in 2016

14

Federal Government

The President + Congress

15

The President

Current US president is Donald Trump of the Republican party. President leads government and suggests new ideas for laws. President can sign bills passed by congress or block them through his power of veto

16

Congress

There to pass bills in to law. Two houses - House of Representatives (435 members) and the Senate (100 members). Laws made here apply to the entire USA

17

State Government

Governor + State Legislature

18

Governor

Each state has their own governor who acts like the president for that state. Andrew Cuomo is the governor of New York. Governors sign bills and are responsible for leading their state

19

State Legislature

Each state has its own legislature that acts like congress. Laws made here apply to the state only. Eg. in Colorado marijuana is partially legal whilst in Florida possession can lead to 5 years

20

Party Make-Up - Representatives

247 Republicans 188 Democrats

21

Party Make-Up - Senate

54 Republicans 44 Democrats

22

Representation in Senate

80% men 2 African American (Cory Baker - New Jersey) 3 Hispanic (Marco Rubio - Florida) 94% White

23

White Representation

64% of Pop 94% of Senate

24

Hispanic Representation

16% in pop 3% in Senate

25

Black Representation

12% in Pop 2% in Senate

26

API Representation

5% in Pop 1% in Senate

27

Native American Representation

0.1% in Pop 0% in Senate

28

Male Representation

48% in Pop 80% in Senate

29

Female Representation

52% in Pop 20% in Senate

30

E-Verify

Free program which checks the legitimacy of workers using information like Date of Birth and Social Security Number

31

Patriot Act

Initially tripled border security budget which paid for extra staff, investigators and lots of technology Makes it easier to arrest, detain and deport terrorists Response to 9/11

32

Border Security Act

Improved resources, training and technology available to border control guards Increased their training and pay Makes it harder to get in by plane/train/boat Allows government to arrest people with expired visas and deport them

33

Secure Fence Act

700 mile long fence built Allows Department of Homeland Security to use extra equipment such as thermal imaging and drones Additional vehicle barriers, checkpoints and lighting Congress allocated $1.2 billion towards this

34

Amnesty

In 2009 Obama pledged to offer amnesty to illegal immigrants; changing their status to legal immigrants. Stopped by Congress

35

Trump's Wall

In 2016 Trump was elected on his promise to build a wall across the entire 1,700 - mile long US and Mexico border and have Mexico pay for it

36

Illegal Immigration

Many people from South and Central America cross the US border illegally. Of the estimated 11.5 million illegal immigrants 7 million are from Mexico. Others come from Honduras, Ecuador, Korea, India and China

37

Suburbs

On the outskirts of cities there are suburbs where mostly wealthy people live in nice houses. Most facilities and services are better. Become known as 'vanilla suburbs' because minorities can't afford to live in them. Eg. Bel Air in LA

38

Ghettos (Housing)

Found in inner-city areas. Unemployment, poverty and dilapidated homes are common. Gangs, violence and poor schools with few facilities are common. Hard to leave due to problems such as low pay and unemployment. Eg. Compton in LA

39

Gated Communites

The very rich can afford to insulate themselves from other Americans. gated communities are homes built behind high walls that have lots of private security. Many live in these communities because they fear crime. There are around 30,000 gated communities including Bradbury, California

40

Barrios

The nickname given to ghettos with a majority Hispanic population. Have similar problems to ghettos and Spanish can be the main language. An example is Spanish Harlem in Manhattan, New York

41

Home Ownership - White

2000 - 71% 2010 - 73%

42

Home Ownership - Black

2000 - 45% 2010 - 47%

43

Home Ownership - Hispanic

2000 - 52% 2010 - 46%

44

Home Ownership - API

2000 - 45% 2010 - 54%

45

Education

Primary and secondary education is funded through local taxation. Rich communities can afford to pay more tax whilst poor communities cannot, leaving their schools under-funded. Schools in ghettos typically have out of date equipment and poor resources. 20% of ghetto teachers have less than 3 years experience

46

Education Completion - White

High School - 87% University - 30%

47

Education Completion - Black

High School - 73% University - 17%

48

Education Completion - Hispanic

High School - 75% University - 12%

49

Education Completion - API

High School - 90% University - 50%

50

Cost of University

University in the USA has to be paid for and on average costs $30, 000 a year. Many ethnic minorities can't afford this

51

Insurance

85% of Americans pay for health insurance. Companies like Blue Cross and Blue Shield provide this service but it isn't cheap; average American pays around $400 a month

52

Pay Medical Bill

Patients in the USA are presented with a bill for their hospital stay. This is usually covered by insurance, medicare or medicaid. It can cost between $9000 to $15000 to deliver a baby

53

Healthcare - White People

Medicaid/Medicare - 15% Uninsured - 13% Life Expectancy - 79

54

Healthcare - Black People

Medicare/ Medicaid - 32% Uninsured - 21% Life Expectancy - 74

55

Crime

Gang and drug violence are much more common in the ghettos than in the suburbs. Black people are over-represented in prison

56

Racism (Crime)

Black man has a 1 in 3 chance of going to jail in his life while a white man has a 1 in 17 chance. Black who kills a white man is 22 x more likely to be given death sentence than a white who kills a black man

57

Crime - Populations: White

Population - 64% Prison Population - 48% Death Row Population - 43%

58

Crime - Populations: Black

Population - 12% Prison Population - 40% Death Row Population - 42%

59

Legal Fees

Black Americans earn less on average than whites and are less likely to be able to afford a good lawyer that might help them avoid prison. Average cost of a lawyer is $700 an hour

60

White Police Force

In many areas the police force is made up of mostly white people, even in mostly black areas. Example is Ferguson, Missouri were 70% of the people are black but only 3 of the 53 officers are black

61

White Justice System

Only 4% of lawyers are black. 665 of around 11,000 state judges are black. this means that once accused of a crime black people often come up against judges, juries and lawyers who may be unsympathetic to their circumstances or even racist