Flashcards in Using Resources Deck (72):
Non metal solid
High melting point
Hard, Brittle, Insulators
What are ceramics made from?
Examples of ceramics
Materials which are a mixture of two or more materials
Low density polythene conditions to be made from ethene
Moderate Temperature, High Pressure, with Catalyst
High density polythene conditions to be made from ethene
Lower Temperature, Lower Pressure, with a different Catalyst
Cannot be remoulded as have strong cross links between chains
Individual polymer chains entwined together with weak forces between
Insulators, Flexbile, Mouldable
What are composite materials made from?
Fibres/Fragments of one material surrounded by a matrix which acts as a binder
Shiny, Malleable, Ductile, Conductive
What is bronze made up of?
Copper and tin
What’s brass made up of?
Copper and zinc
What is pure gold described as?
Metals often used in Gold Alloys
Iron + oxygen +water —> ?
Hydrated iron (III) oxide
Compound of rust
Hydrated iron (III) oxide
Aluminium corrodes ... than Iron
Aluminium forms a ... when exposed to Oxygen and Water
Ways of preventing rust
Painting/Coating with Plastic
Sacrificial Method - Place a more reactive metal with the iron so that Water and Oxygen react with that instead
Disadvantages of mining
Uses lots of energy
Scars the landscape
Produces a lot of waste
Meeting the needs of present society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
How are chemists helping reduce energy consumption?
Developing catalysts for industrial processes
What is high grade ore?
Ore containing a large amount of a desired mineral
What is low grade ore?
Ore containing a small amount of a desired mineral
Process of extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms
Product of bioleaching
How is the metal extracted from the leachate in bioleaching?
Electrolysis or Displaced by a More Reactive Metal
The process of extraction of metals from ores using plants.
Plants absorb the metal from the soil and it builds up in the leaves.
How is the metal extracted in phytomining?
Harvesting, drying and burning the plants that have absorbed the metal which then needs to be electrolysed (or displaced by a more reactive metal)
Disadvantage of Bioleaching & Phytomining
Advantage of Bioleaching & Phytomining
Less damaging to the environment than traditional methods
Advantages of recycling
Less energy, Uses less finite material, Reduces waste going to landfill
Glass is sorted into ... before recycling
Colour and chemical composition
Stages of life cycle assessment
Extraction of Raw Material, Manufacture and Packaging, Use of Product, Disposal
life cycle assessment
Looks at every stage of a product’s life to assess the impact it would have on the environment
Suitable pH for Potable Water
Step one of making potable water
Filtered with wire mesh
Step 2 making potable water
Sand and Gravel Filtration
Step 3 making potable water
Methods of sterilisation of water
Bubbling chlorine gas, Ozone, UV Light
Methods of treating seawater
Process of reverse osmosis to treat sea water
Salty water passed through a membrane that only allows water molecules through
Ions and larger molecules are trapped by the membrane so separated from the water
Disadvantage of distillation and reverse osmosis
Requires a lot of energy so not viable for producing large quantities of water
Sewage treatment step 1
Screening (Wire Mesh)
Sewage treatment step 2
Sewage left in settlement tank and undergoes sedimentation
Heavier suspended solids sink to the bottom to produce sludge while the lighter effluent floats to the top
In sedimentation what is sewage split into?
Sludge and Effluent
Sewage treatment step 3
Effluent digested by aerobic bacteria
Sewage treatment step 4
Sludge digested by anaerobic bacteria
Products of digestion of sludge
Methane and fertiliser
What does the haber process produce?
Uses of ammonia
Haber process equation
N₂ + 3H₂ ⇌ 2NH₃
Haber process word equation
Nitrogen + hydrogen <==> ammonia (+ heat)
How to obtain hydrogen
React methane with steam
Catalyst used in the Haber process
Temp used in haber process
450 Degrees Celcius
Pressure used in haber process
The forward reaction in the Haber process is...
The backwards reaction in the Haber process is
Essential elements in fertilisers
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)
Ammonia + nitric acid —>?
Use of ammonium nitrate
Industry Production of Ammonium Nitrate
Giant vats, high concentration
Lab production of ammonium nitrate
Titration then Crystallisation, Low Concentration
Phosphate rock + Nitric Acid—>?
Phosphoric acid + calcium nitrate
Phosphate rock + Sulfuric Acid
Calcium sulfate + calcium phosphate
Calcium Sulfate and Calcium Phosphate is a...
Phosphate Rock + Phosphoric Acid—>?