Using Resources Flashcards Preview

Chemistry gcse > Using Resources > Flashcards

Flashcards in Using Resources Deck (72):
1

Ceramic

Non metal solid

2

Ceramic properties

High melting point
Hard, Brittle, Insulators

3

What are ceramics made from?

Not carbon

4

Examples of ceramics

Clay
Glass

5

Composite materials

Materials which are a mixture of two or more materials

6

Low density polythene conditions to be made from ethene

Moderate Temperature, High Pressure, with Catalyst

7

High density polythene conditions to be made from ethene

Lower Temperature, Lower Pressure, with a different Catalyst

8

Thermosetting polymer

Cannot be remoulded as have strong cross links between chains

9

Thermosoftening polymer

Individual polymer chains entwined together with weak forces between

10

Polymer properties

Insulators, Flexbile, Mouldable

11

What are composite materials made from?

Fibres/Fragments of one material surrounded by a matrix which acts as a binder

12

Metal properties

Shiny, Malleable, Ductile, Conductive

13

What is bronze made up of?

Copper and tin

14

What’s brass made up of?

Copper and zinc

15

What is pure gold described as?

24 carat

16

Metals often used in Gold Alloys

Zinc
Copper
Silver

17

Iron + oxygen +water —> ?

Hydrated iron (III) oxide

18

Compound of rust

Hydrated iron (III) oxide

19

Aluminium corrodes ... than Iron

Less

20

Aluminium forms a ... when exposed to Oxygen and Water

Protective layer

21

Ways of preventing rust

Painting/Coating with Plastic
Electroplating
Oiling/greasing
Sacrificial Method - Place a more reactive metal with the iron so that Water and Oxygen react with that instead

22

Disadvantages of mining

Uses lots of energy
Scars the landscape
Produces a lot of waste
Destroys habitats

23

Sustainability

Meeting the needs of present society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

24

How are chemists helping reduce energy consumption?

Developing catalysts for industrial processes

25

What is high grade ore?

Ore containing a large amount of a desired mineral

26

What is low grade ore?

Ore containing a small amount of a desired mineral

27

Bioleaching

Process of extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms

28

Product of bioleaching

Leachate

29

How is the metal extracted from the leachate in bioleaching?

Electrolysis or Displaced by a More Reactive Metal

30

Phytomining

The process of extraction of metals from ores using plants.
Plants absorb the metal from the soil and it builds up in the leaves.

31

How is the metal extracted in phytomining?

Harvesting, drying and burning the plants that have absorbed the metal which then needs to be electrolysed (or displaced by a more reactive metal)

32

Disadvantage of Bioleaching & Phytomining

Very slow

33

Advantage of Bioleaching & Phytomining

Less damaging to the environment than traditional methods

34

Advantages of recycling

Less energy, Uses less finite material, Reduces waste going to landfill

35

Glass is sorted into ... before recycling

Colour and chemical composition

36

Stages of life cycle assessment

Extraction of Raw Material, Manufacture and Packaging, Use of Product, Disposal

37

life cycle assessment

Looks at every stage of a product’s life to assess the impact it would have on the environment

38

Suitable pH for Potable Water

6.5-8.5

39

Step one of making potable water

Filtered with wire mesh

40

Step 2 making potable water

Sand and Gravel Filtration

41

Step 3 making potable water

Sterilisation

42

Methods of sterilisation of water

Bubbling chlorine gas, Ozone, UV Light

43

Methods of treating seawater

Desalination (distillation)
Reverse osmosis

44

Process of reverse osmosis to treat sea water

Salty water passed through a membrane that only allows water molecules through
Ions and larger molecules are trapped by the membrane so separated from the water

45

Disadvantage of distillation and reverse osmosis

Requires a lot of energy so not viable for producing large quantities of water

46

Sewage treatment step 1

Screening (Wire Mesh)

47

Sewage treatment step 2

Sewage left in settlement tank and undergoes sedimentation

48

Sedimentation

Heavier suspended solids sink to the bottom to produce sludge while the lighter effluent floats to the top

49

In sedimentation what is sewage split into?

Sludge and Effluent

50

Sewage treatment step 3

Effluent digested by aerobic bacteria

51

Sewage treatment step 4

Sludge digested by anaerobic bacteria

52

Products of digestion of sludge

Methane and fertiliser

53

What does the haber process produce?

Ammonia

54

Uses of ammonia

Fertilisers

55

Haber process equation

N₂ + 3H₂ ⇌ 2NH₃

56

Haber process word equation

Nitrogen + hydrogen <==> ammonia (+ heat)

57

How to obtain hydrogen

React methane with steam

58

Catalyst used in the Haber process

Iron catalyst

59

Temp used in haber process

450 Degrees Celcius

60

Pressure used in haber process

200 atm

61

The forward reaction in the Haber process is...

Exothermic

62

The backwards reaction in the Haber process is

Endothermic

63

Essential elements in fertilisers

nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)

64

Ammonia + nitric acid —>?

Ammonium Nitrate

65

Use of ammonium nitrate

Fertiliser

66

Industry Production of Ammonium Nitrate

Giant vats, high concentration

67

Lab production of ammonium nitrate

Titration then Crystallisation, Low Concentration

68

Phosphate rock + Nitric Acid—>?

Phosphoric acid + calcium nitrate

69

Phosphate rock + Sulfuric Acid

Calcium sulfate + calcium phosphate

70

Calcium Sulfate and Calcium Phosphate is a...

Single superphosphate

71

Phosphate Rock + Phosphoric Acid—>?

Calcium phosphate

72

Calcium Phosphate is a...

Triple super phosphate