UWORLD RENAL Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UWORLD RENAL Deck (25):
1

palpable purpura, GN, non specific signs like arthrlagia, hepatosplenomegaly, low complement levels,
usually associated with HCV

cryoglobulinemia

2

symptoms of hypercalcemia

weakness, GI distress, neuropsychiatric (confusion/stupor/coma)...patients also usually volume depleted due to polyuria and hypercalcemic induced nephrogenic DI.

3

treatment of hypercalcemia

1. AGGRESSIVE FLUIDS
2. calcitonin
3. bisphosphonates (pamidronate, alendronate, zaote something acid), but may take longer to get rid of calcium

4

MCC of kidney stones

calcium oxalate stones from fat malabsorption (chronic diarrhea, small bowel disease, resection)

5

When to not use metformin

in critically ill patients
induces lactic acidosis which can be nephrotoxic

6

chronic bladder pain worse with filling, relieved by voiding, increased urgency/frequency, dyspareunia. normal U/A

interstitial cystitis (painful bladder syndrome)...

exclude PID (cervical motion tenderness/fever), or UTI (nitrates/leuko esterase on UA)

7

euvolemic (BUN:Cr < 20), hyponatremia with high urine Na and osmolarity, decreased serum osm, failure to correct with fluids

SIADH

8

non anion gap metabolic acidosis + hyperkalemia + preserved/moderately reduced kidney function

type 4 RTA (hyperkalemic RTA)

9

best way to test for DM nephropathy

urine microalbumin/Cr ratio

10

When to give calcium gluconate for hyperkalemia?

K> 7.0 or ECG changes

11

common causes of hyperkalemia

AKI
CKD
MEDICATIONS
RAAAS disorder

12

side effect of H1-antihistamines (i.e. diphenhydramine)

anti-cholinergic effects = urinary retention (due to detrusor hypoactivity), eye/mouth dryness

13

treatment for UNCOMPLICATED and COMPLICATED cystitis

uncomplicated - nitrofurantonin, bactrim, or fosfomycin
complicated - culture + quinolone?

complicated = pyelo, penis, procedure, pregnancy, immunocompromised, diabetes/renal failure

14

MCC glomerulopathy associated with HIV

FSGS

15

side effects of thiazides

hyperglycemia, increased LDL + triglycerides, increased uremia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomag, hypercalcemia

16

hypotonic (serum osm< 275) hyponatremia + euvolemia + increased urine Osm, + increased urine Na

SIADH (associated with SSRIs in elderly as one cause)

17

single kidney + low volume urine + flank pain

obstructive uropathy

18

common side effect of rifampin

red/orange discoloration of urine; but must r/o renal diagnosis with u/a

19

recent coronary procedure/catheterization, elevated serum creatinine, eosinophilia, hypocomplement, purple mottling of skin

cholesterol emboli (leads to multisystem involvement)...contrast nephropathy usually doesn't present with multi system involvement

20

elderly, combining analgesics-> renal failure

analgesic nephropathy from papillary necrosis or chronic tubuluointerstitial nephritis

21

What can cause mixed metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis

aspirin toxicity

22

hypovolemic hypernatremia how to treat
symptomatic and asymptomatic

asymtomatic - d5w
symptomatic (hypotension, dehydration) - 0.9 saline FIRST then d5w after patient is euvolemic

23

markedly elevated Ca, low PTH, normal/low phos

hypercalcemia of malignancy (due to secretion of PTH related protein by cancer cells...can be lung, head and neck, bladder, breast, ovarian cancers

24

expected lab values in hypovolemia

increased BUN:Cr ratio, decreased urine Na (RAAAS system activated so sodium is reabsorbed and less excreted, also more K is excreted)

25

hypercalcemia (polyuria, polydipsia), kidney stones, neuropsychiatric presenations (depression, psychosis, ood swings), HTN

primary hyperparathyroidism