vaccinations Flashcards Preview

pharm 516 > vaccinations > Flashcards

Flashcards in vaccinations Deck (21):
1

live attenuated vaccines

derived from bacteria, weakened in lab
stimulates ACTIVE immunity
one dose
CI in pregnancy and immunosuppressed pts
MMR, varicella, zoster
yellow fever, rotavirus, influenza
BCG, OPV (not in US)

2

inactivated vaccine

produced by growing bacteria or virus in culture media
inactivated with heat or chemicals
stimulates ACTIVE immunity, can't cause disease
BOOSTER dose needed to activate B cells
OK to give in pregnancy
WHOLE-Polio, Hep A, Rabies
FRACTIONAL-Hep B, influenza, acellular pertussis
T-D, Tetanus

3

Toxoid vaccines

Fractional vaccine made from formalin-inactivated toxin
DIPTHERIA-toxin converted to toxoid and absorbed onto aluminum salt
TETANUS - formaldehyde treated toxin, absorbed on aluminum salt, fluid toxoid

4

Polysaccharide Vaccines
inc

Unique type of inactivated subunit of vaccine
long chains of sugar molecules,
surface capsule of bacteria
PNEUMOCOCCAL, MENINGOCOCCAL, Typhoid
Vaccine stimulates B cells
more success in adults than kids, immature immune system

5

conjugated polysaccharide vaccines

chemically combined with protein molecule
makes it T cell dependent,
increased immunogenecity in infants
HIB
pneumococcal
meningococcal

6

Recombinant vaccines

produced by genetic engineering
Hep B - insertion of segment of viral gene into yeast cell
produces Hep B surface antigen
Live Typhoid vaccine (ty21a) - bacteria modified to not cause illness

7

Immune globulines

Not vaccines
preformed antibodies
PASSIVE immunity
treatment, not prophylaxis,
administered after exposure to disease
Hep B immune globulin (HBIG),Varicella Zoster (VZIG), rabies, RSV, Rhogam, tetanus, diptheria

8

standard US vaccines

Hep A and B, diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, HIB, polio, rotavirus, MMR, varicella-zoster virus,
pneumococcus, flu, mengococcus,
HPV

9

recombinant influenza, safe in egg allergic

yes, no egg in this type of flu shot

10

varicella CI

severe immunodeficiency, pregnancy

11

zoster CI

severe immunodef, pregnancy, antivirals within the last 24 h, no antivirals for 14 days after this vaccine

12

immunosuppressive steroid dose

20 mg of prednisone, >2 weeks. Defer administration 1 month.

13

reactivity between measles vac and PPD

measles and PPD on same day is OK, otherwise wait a month. Can do it sooner with understanding it may influence reactivity.

14

Neomycin anaphylactic rxn hx, which vaccines are CI

IPV, MMR, varicella CI

15

Streptomycin, polymyxin B, neomycin, which vaccines are CI

IPV, vaccinia (small pox) CI

16

Bakers yeast anaphylactic rxn hx, with vaccines are CI?

Hepatitis B CI

17

Gelatin, neomycin anaphylactic rxn hx, with vaccines are CI?

Varicella zoster CI

18

Gelatin anaphylactic rxn hx, with vaccines are CI?

MMR CI

19

Manifestation of anaphylaxis

Urticaria
Upper airway edema
dyspnea and wheezing
hypotension
headache
ith without rash
angioedema
Flush
dizziness and syncope
GI symptoms
substernal pain
seizure

20

tx of anaphylaxis

SC or IM epinephrine
administer antihistamine (like diphenhydramin)
repeat epi in 5 minutes if symptoms persist or increase
repeat antihistamine (+/- H2 blocker)
may also need, IV fluids, vasopressor, corticosteroids, airway maintenance,
Observe, may have biphasic or protracted response

21

pneumococcal vaccine adverse rxn

local rxn - 30-50%
fever myalgia - 11-40% in kids=Prevnar 13 conjugate, uncommon with polysaccharide=pneumovax 23
severe/life threatening=rare