Vaccines Flashcards Preview

I3 Exam 3 > Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (29):
1

inactive toxins (treated with formalin)
tetanus, diphtheris

toxoids

2

live organism vaccine
non-attenutated
vaccinia

smallpox vaccine

3

limited utility
Ty21a vaccine for typhoid fever

live attenuated vaccines for bacteria

4

widely used
polio, measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, varicella, rotavirus, influenza

live attenuated vaccines for viruses

5

serial passage through cell cultures of other species (BCG)

temperature-selective mutants (influenza)

gene reassortment mutants (rotavirus)

recombinant viruses (investigational)

attenuation

6

Bordatella pertussis, hepatitis A, influenza, polio (IPV, Salk), rabies

inactivated/killed vaccines

7

purified capsular polysaccharide (pneumococcus, meningococcus, HiB) or produced with recombinant DNA (hepB, HPV)

subunit vaccine

8

special indication
pneumococcal, HiB, meningococcal vaccines

Asplenic

9

special indication
pneumococcal vaccine

HIV

10

special indication
influenza, pneumococcal

Elderly

11

special indication
HepB, influenza, varicella

healthcare workers

12

special indication
varicella

leukemic children

13

special indication
hepA/B, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, typhoid

travelers

14

two surface antigens: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
IM = inactivated
Intranasal = attenuated

traditionally trivalent (2A and 1B)
quadrivalent now available (2A, 2B)
since 2010, H1N1 "swine flu" has been included

traditionally grown in embryonated hen's eggs and inactivated with formalin

live attenuated vaccine is cold adapted; may exacerbate asthma/wheezing in children 6 months

seasonal influenza vaccine

15

monovalent H5N1 vaccine not available commercially, stockpiled by the government in case of pandemic

other strains have been developed so that in an epidemic, properly matched vaccines can be rapidly produced (reassortant virus vaccines)

Avian influenza vaccine

16

induces T-independent immune response, not very immnogenic, does not result in immunologic memory, no appreciable booster response

capsular polysaccharide vaccine

17

capsular polysaccharides conjugated with carrier protein to elicit T-dependent response

conjugate vaccines

18

dramatically reduced with incidence of invasive disease in children
polyribitol phosphate capsular antigen conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, outer membrane protein of N. meningitidis, or tetanus toxoid

antigens from 23 capsular types
licensed for adults and children>2
recommended for 65+, asplenics, cardiopulmonary disease, diabetics, chronic liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, CSF leaks, cochlear implants, immunocompromised

Conjugate HiB vaccine

19

Gardasil now contains 9 (originally 4) strains: 16, 18, 6, 11, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58
virus-like particles (produced using recombinant DNa in yeast) adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide
recommended in males and females 11-12, shown to have close to 100% efficacy in preventing pre-cancerous lesions

Cervarix contains virus like particles from 16 and 18 and is only licensed in females; contains novel adjuvant to stimulate immune response

HPV vaccine

20

Rotashield withdrawn from the market due to risk of intussusception

Rotateq is a live oral human-bovine reassortment vaccine containing 5 reassorted viruses, strains are not cross-protective

Rotarix is a live oral attenuated human virus vaccine, monovalent and attenutated by serial passage, cross-protective against other strains

vaccination recommended for all infants at 2 and 4 months, third dose at 6 months with Rotateq

Rotavirus vaccine

21

most common adverse side effect

pain, swelling, erythema at injection site; common with killed vaccines; mostly mild and resolve spontaneously

local reactogenicity

22

adverse side effect

fever, malaise, headache; more common after live attenuated vaccine

systemic reactogenicity

23

reaction including anaphylaxis to vaccine antigens or vaccine component (residual egg protein or antibiotic) – risk is minimized with proper screening

allergic reaction

24

rare, serious complication
acute arthropathy

rubella vaccine

25

rare, serious complication
vesicular rash, may be infectious

varicella vaccine

26

rare, serious complication
acute encephalopathy

whole cell pertussis vaccine
not acellular

27

rare, serious complication
vaccine associated poliomyelitis

oral polio vaccine

28

rare, serious complication
neutrotropic and viscerotropic disease

Neutrotropic = post-vacccination aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, mainly in infants and elderly; thought to be related to genetic predisposition to disease caused by the vaccine strain (17D)

Vescerotropic = post-vaccinaiton jaundice, renal failure, subsequent multi-organ failure, possible death (similar to wildtype virus); increased risk in elderly and thymus disease

yellow fever vaccine

29

rare, serious complication
Guillain-Barre syndrome has rarely been associated with multiple vaccines - causal link not proven

meningococcal, influenza, tetanus toxoid vaccines