vaccines, foodborne illnesses Flashcards Preview

Elaina: Infectious Disease > vaccines, foodborne illnesses > Flashcards

Flashcards in vaccines, foodborne illnesses Deck (49):
1

what is the likely natural reservoir of ebola?

unknown but maybe bats

2

how is ebola transmitted?

from person to person through direct contact with ebola infected blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, feces, vomit, semen)

3

what must a patient have in order to spread ebola?

symptoms!

4

what does contract tracing consist of?

it is a standard public health procedure immediately employed to identify and monitor those who may have potentially been exposed to a sick patient (interviewing, constructing maps, assessing risks)

5

how do we treat ebola?

provide IV fluids, balance electrolytes, maintain O2 status

6

what must you ensure when dealing with your PPE should you become exposed with someone with an infectious disease?

remove the MOST contaminated PPE first

7

what are the most common causes of death in international travel?

#1 cardiovascular
#2 medical
#3 injury
#4 homicide/suicide
#5 infectious disease (1/100,000 travelers will die)

8

which two vaccines may be REQUIRED for international travel?

yellow fever, cholera

9

how long does the yellow fever vaccine remain effective for? where are areas of risk?

10 years! equatorial africa, central, and south america are high risk

10

which disease has a new circulating serotype for which vaccine has not been developed?

vibrio cholera 0139; affects indian subcontinent and asia

11

what does the CDC recommend for vaccination for cholera?

one injection meets international requirements; full series of 3 shots for some patients

boosters may be required every 6 months

12

how often should the tetanus (Tdap or Td) booster be given?

every 10 years unless puncture wound over 5 years past last booster

13

who should receive the polio vaccine? do we give a booster?

-should be used in patients over 18
-small risk in paralysis with first dose (1/1.4 million)
-single booster for travel to india, nigeria, pakistan, somalia

14

who gets pneumovax?

-over the age of 65
-anyone with chronic medical conditions

15

where is typhoid endemic? who should get the vaccine?

people traveling to central and south america, india, africa

(food and water born illness)

16

who should receive the vaccine for japanese encephalitis?

people engaging in outdoor activities (particularly rice and pig farming) and traveling over 1 month in rural areas far east (india, china, korea, japan, SE asia)

given in 3 doses with booster every 2 years

17

where are hepatitis A and B endemic?

hep A: nearly all international locations
hep B: south america, africa, SE asia, south pacific

18

how are hepatitis A and B vaccines given?

hep A: >4 weeks, booster at 6 months and 12 months

hep B: 0, 1, 6 months

19

how is the rabies vaccine given?

series 0, 7, 21, or 28 days if exposure

20

who gets the meningococcal vaccine?

pilgrims to mecca

meningitis is endemic in sub-saharan africa

21

who is the smallpox vaccine indicated for?

military

22

what mosquito causes malaria?

FEMALE anopheles mosquito

23

what do the female anopheles mosquitos typically carry? which is the more concerning protozoal parasite it can carry?

typical: plasmodium vivax, ovale, malariae

BAD: plasmodium falciparum

24

prevalence of malaria?

300 million cases with 3 million deaths annually

25

how is malaria transmitted?

1) mosquito bites and injects malaria
2) goes to your liver to form merozoites
3) becomes sporozoites in RBC
4) break apart your RBC and symptoms begin

26

which two species of malaria can remain dormant in the liver? why is this bad?

P. ovale and P. vivax

they can still transmit disease when dormant! make sure to treat for P. ovale and P. vivax no matter what

27

complications of malaria?

DIC, splenic rupture, anemia

28

DOC for malaria prophylaxis?

depends on geography!!

for pharm purposes: chloroquine

29

how can we protect against acquiring malaria?

DEET, permethrin, appropriate clothing, screens

30

most common pathogen in traveller's diarrhea?

e. coli (50 percent)

fecally contaminated food and water

31

which two pathogens capable of causing traveller's diarrhea are most infectious?

shigella and giardia
-only require 10-100 organisms
-shigella less common

32

symptoms of traveller's diarrhea?

abrupt onset of loose stools, abdominal cramping, rectal urgency

usually self-limited

33

risk factors for developing traveller's diarrhea?

immunosuppressed, inflammatory bowel disease, H2 blockers, PPIs, antacids

34

treatment of traveller's diarrhea?

fluoroquinolones (short course, 3 days)

FLUID!

35

is prophylaxis indicated for traveller's diarrhea?

NO. just avoid street vendors, buffets, raw or undercooked meats/seafood, raw fruits/veggies, tap water, unpasteurized dairy products

36

what is a long-term sequelae that could develop due to food-borne infection with e. coli?

hemolytic uremic syndrome (2-5 percent)

long term kidney dysfunction

37

what is a long-term sequelae that could develop due to food-borne infection with campylobacter jejuni?

guillane barre syndrome (1 out of 1000)

38

which organisms are responsible for possible reactive arthropathy as a long-term sequelae?

salmonella, campylobacter, yersinia enterocolitica, SHIGELLA

1-3 percent of infections

39

what is the most common cause of food-related illness?

NOROVIRUS

40

while we have seen significant drops in e. coli, campylobacter, salmonella...what have we seen a significant increase in?

VIBRIO! 85% increase

41

why may we be seeing an increase in foodborne vibrio infections in the US?

associated with eating raw shellfish from WARM WATERS; increasing because our sewage is sent into our oceans and now oceans are warmer because of CLIMATE CHANGE

42

characterized by a large number of cases in ONE jurisdiction, detected by affected group themselves, and involves a local investigation, local food handling error, and local solution

focal outbreak

43

characterized by a small number of cases in many jurisdictions, detected by LAB-based subtype surveillance, and involves multi-state investigation, industrial contamination event, and broad implications

dispersed outbreak

44

most common food related to outbreaks?

poultry!

leafy greens #2, dairy #3, beef #4

45

what is beginning to emerge as an important problem in regards to foodborne illness?

drug-resistant salmonellosis (typhimurium, newport)

still sensitive to cipro, bactrim but these diseases cause more severe and longer illness

all have dairy cattle as reservoir and are transmitted through GROUND BEEF

46

which formulation of e.coli can cause hemolytic anemia (enterohemorrhagic e. coli)?

shiga-toxin producing E. coli 0157 serogroup (STEC)

47

how long does norovirus typically last?

24-48 hours

individual may be contagious for at least 2 weeks post recovery

48

how is norovirus transmitted?

person-to-person
extremely contagious
fecal-oral route
kitchen workers can contaminate food

49

symptoms of norovirus?

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (NOT bloody), abdominal cramping, LOW grade fever if present