Valvular Heart Disease & HTN Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease & HTN Deck (14):
1

Describe the microscopic appearance of the myofibers in the setting of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.

- Enlargement of myocytes
- No additional myocytes created
- you do get more sarcomeres, myofibrils

2

Name the most common form of hypertension

Essential HTN
- idiopathic

3

What are the effects of chronic hypertension on the appearance and function of the heart?

Hypertrophy and/or dilation of the heart

4

Define cor pulmonale

Right heart failure

5

Give examples of underlying causes (excluding left heart failure) of cor pulmonale

- Pulmonary parenchyma disease (emphysema, institial lung disease, bronchiectasis)
- Pulmonary Vessel Disease (PE, 1ary pulm HTN, sleep apnea)
- Chest movement alterations (kyphoscoliosis, obesity, neuromuscular)

6

Discuss the incidence and long term implications of a bicuspid aortic value.

1 in 50-100 people

Asymptomatic until later in life with accelerated wear and tear
- Reduced outflow => ventricular hypertrophy
- Increased turbulence => valve thickening & stenosis (BIGGEST problem)

7

Identify the most common causes of aortic stenosis in (a) patient 70 years old.

a)

b)

8

Describe the key features of rheumatic heart disease with respect to the valve leaflets, chordae tendinae, and the effects on the functionality of the valve.

VL: fibrosis, fusion, calcification

CT: fibrosis, fusion, shortening

Leads to stenosis and regurgitation

9

List several complications of rheumatic heart disease.

- Valves can't open or close (stenosis, regurg)
- Can progress to HF
- Susceptible to infective endocarditis

10

Name the most commonly affected valves in rheumatic heart disease.

Mitral (65-75%)

Aortic, usually with MV (25%)

11

Distinguish the two major classes of cardiac valve vegetations and their causes.

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis:
- thrombus formation in valve
- No organism involved
- Causes: RHD, SLE, hypercoag state

Infectious endocarditis:
- 1ary infection of normal/damaged valve
- Causes: bacteria (skin, oral, GI), fungi, viruses

12

List examples of the bacteria commonly associated with infectious endocarditis

- S. aureus
- Strep. viridans

13

Describe the propensity of bacteria commonly associated with infectious endocarditis to infect normal versus abnormal valves and how the bacteria may gain access to the valves.

a

14

List possible complications of cardiac valve vegetations.

a