Flashcards in Vector-Borne, Zoonotic, & Bioterrorism Deck (15):
What are some factors that contribute to the emergence of disease?
1. Environmental / ecological changes
2. Behavior changes -> sexual / IV drug use
3. Human demographic changes - deforestation
4. Technology and industry - Hepatitis blood transmission
What genus is poxvirus and what makes it unique among its type? Is it enveloped?
Orthopoxvirus -> dsDNA, only DNA virus to replicate in the cytoplasm. Doesn't need the nucleus because it brings everything and has a huge genome
Yes, enveloped, it makes its own
What is characteristic of the poxvirus rash?
It is centrifugal (starts on extremities), includes palms / soles, and all start at the same time. Typically lasts longer than chickenpox and there will be scarring
What is the route of transmission of poxviruses?
Respiratory route, but direct contact can happen (Stable in environment)
What are the four types of smallpox?
3. Flat-type - flat, soft, focal skin lesions
4. Hemorrhagic-type - mucosal hemorrhage and death before lesion formation
What is the incubation of smallpox vs chickenpox? Rash length?
Smallpox - 1-2 weeks
Chickenpox - 2-3 weeks
And smallpox lesions will last twice as long?
How is the smallpox vaccine administered?
Via special bifurcated needle, leaves a scar
How was monkeypox transmitted? What is the difference from smallpox?
Via direct contact with ill prairie dog
Generalized pustular rash with smaller lesions, but still high mortality. Pretty much the same
What is the Avian flu strain of concern?
What is the structure of the ebolavirus and what family is it in?
Negative-sense ssRNA virus with helical nucleocapsid, and envelope
What is the major reservoir of Ebola?
Fruit bats, can be spread by contact with infected monkeys as well
What is the hallmark feature of ebola infections?
Massive hemorrhagic destruction of the liver. Also damage to spleen and kidney
What is the zoonotic vector for hantavirus and what type of virus is it?
Deer mouse: transmitted by aerosolization of rodent feces
It is a Bunyavirus, negative sense RNA genome in 3 segments, with envelope
In what way did global climate change help the re-emergence of hantivirus?
Weather anomalies increased the spread