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Flashcards in vector protozoe Deck (41)
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1
Q

what size is a protozoa

A

2 -100 um

2
Q

describe protozoa

A

single cell, free living organism

3
Q

how do protozoa infect humans

A

opportunistically

4
Q

what do INTRAcellular parasites infect?

A

blood cells
epithelial cells
Brain muscle

5
Q

what do EXTRAcellular parasites infect

A

blood, intestine, urogenital system

6
Q

where does sexual reproduction occur

A

inside the insect vector

7
Q

where does asexual reproduction take place

A

inside human host

8
Q

how does asexual reproduction happen

A

binary or multiple devision of growing stages

9
Q

drugs for leishmaniosis are

A

expensive

10
Q

where does the vector for leishmaniasis usually occur

A

forst area, caves, burrows of small rodents

11
Q

what is the main vector for leishmaniosis

A

phlebotomise sand fly vector

12
Q

how many people are infected world wide

A

12 million

13
Q

is short of long term treatment required for leishmaniasis

A

long

14
Q

what is the protozoa of leishimanosis

A

parasitic protozoa of genus Leishmania

15
Q

how many different types of leishmaniasis are there

A

four

16
Q

describe cutaneous forms

A

skin ulcers form on exposed areas e.g. face, legs,arms.

Heal within a few months, leaving scars

17
Q

describe Diffuse cutaneous Leshimanoisis

A

produces disseminated and chronic skin lesions

difficult to treat

18
Q

describe mucocutaneous forms

A

lessons can partially or totally destroy mucus membranes of nose, mouth throat cavities and surrounding tissue

19
Q

describe Visceral Leishmaniosis

A

characterised by high fever,
substantial weight loss, swelling of spleen
and liver,
anaemia

20
Q

what is fatality rate of Visceral leishimaniosis if left untreated

A

100% in two years

21
Q

what can cutaneous disease occur without

A

visceral involvement

22
Q

the disease is usually what but can be what?

A

chronic but can be self limiting

23
Q

in cutaneous leishimanoisis what occurs after a sand fly bite

A

small cutaneous papule

24
Q

when does a papule usually occur

A

2 to 3 weeks after bite of sand fly

25
Q

when the lesson grows it often becomes what in cutaneous leshimanoisis

A

indurated and ulcerated

26
Q

what are the systemic symptoms of Visceral leishimanosis

A

undulating fever, malaise, diarrhoea, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy, emaciation, anemia, leukopenia

27
Q

what does Visceral leishimanosis usually begin with

A

nodule at site of infection

28
Q

what happens to the nodule

A

usually disappears spontaneously in few weeks or months.

Rarely ulcerates

29
Q

what may appear after treatment of visceral leishimanosis

A

infiltrative or nodular lessons of the skin

30
Q

can subclinical cases of visceral leishimanosis occur

A

yes

31
Q

how do you diagnose leischimanosis

A
Microscopic examination
PCR assays of tissue aspirates
Biopsy smears, scrapings, pr slit skin smears, 
serology, 
LEichimanin skin test
32
Q

what diagnosis method is most commonly used for cutanious

A

leishmanin skin test & biopsy smears

33
Q

what diagnosis method is most commonly used for Visceral

A

serology

34
Q

how is transmission of leishmaniasis in or near houses prevented

A

insectisides

35
Q

where are insecticides not useful

A

forest areas

36
Q

is there an effective vaccine for leishimanosis

A

no

37
Q

which drug is the sole oral effective agent for leishmanosis

A

Milteforsine

38
Q

what are we in need of urgently in terms of treatment for leischimanosis

A

less toxic drug administered orally

39
Q

what must you do for treatment for individuals

A

tailor treatment as keuchmaniosis is caused by many species or subspecies of leishmania protozoa

40
Q

which drug is commonly used for Visceral leishimanosis

A

Amphotericin B in its liposomal form drug of choice

41
Q

what drugs are mainly used to treat leishmanosis

A

anti parasitic pentavalent antimonials, eg,

Sodium stilbogluconate or meglumine antimanate